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8.1 changes on the western frontier 1877 1900
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8.1 changes on the western frontier 1877 1900

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  • 1. Changes on the Western Frontier . Indians declines asThe culture of the Plains white settlers transform the Great Plains. Meanwhile, farmers form the Populist movement to address their economic concerns
  • 2. Section 1 Cultures Clash on the Prairie The cattle industry booms in the late 1800s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declinesLearning Goal:NJCCCS6.1.12.A.5.a1. Relate industrial growth to the need for social andgovernmental reforms.CRN Benchmark: 10.11.4 P2. Describe how westward expansion in the mid- to late 1800s ledto conflicts between American settlers and Native American
  • 3. Warm Up- Focus & Motivation
  • 4. Geography of the West► Area between the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Mountains► Areas where settlers and Indians lived► By 1900 Indians had been forced off their lands - Transcontinental Railroad opened up the west for settlement a. carried materials and people
  • 5. Minors in the West► 1859 - Gold found in the Rocky Mountains (Clear Creek near Pikes Peak) - 1st found by George Jackson► 1959 - Gold found in Nevada - Lode produced 100s of millions of dollars worth of gold and silver - Lode - a deposit of a valuable mineral buried between layers of rock
  • 6. Mining Life► Boom towns sprang up - They were rough towns► Women worked in the mining towns - Cooked - Laundry - Dance halls - Boarding towns
  • 7. The Business of Mining► Few prospectors became rich► Lack of technology prevented most people from becoming rich - Most were placer mining - where people wash the sand and gravel from a stream
  • 8. The Business of Mining► More efficient methods developed in the 1870 s - Water cannons were used to strip the dirt off the hillside - Exposed gold - Very harmful to the environment► Only companies had the money to use water cannons► Working conditions were brutal - 100 degrees fairenhight in some caves - Workers wore thick boots to protect against hot water - Accidents such as cave-ins and dynamite explosions were common
  • 9. Mining Boom Ends► Most of the mining towns became ghost towns► Gold rush changed the geography of the United States
  • 10. Mining Boom Ends► The population grew so much in some areas that they were able to become states - 1864 - Nevada - 1876 - Colorado - 1889 - North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana -1890 - Idaho
  • 11. Lumber Industry► Logging became a big business in the west► Pacific Northwest had an abundance of trees -Redwoods - Douglas fur► Settlers needed lumber for homes and mine timbers
  • 12. Alaska► 1867 - William Seward arranged for the purchase of Alaska from Russia► U.S. Senators didnt want to buy it - Called it "Sewards Folly"► Gamble paid off - Russia lost foothold in North America► Alaska was rich in natural resources - Gold - Copper - Oil -Timber
  • 13. Government policy► Early 1800s Plains Indians lived and hunted between the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains - 1840 s - Whites begin to settle the west coast - U.S. Gov. ask Indians to let settlers pass safely - Asked the Indians to limit their hunting to certain are - Indians had to move with buffalo► Mid 1800s - U.S. Gov changes policy - Established reservations - special areas used by a specific group - Indians agreed to live on reservations based on the promise that the land would be theirs forever (signed Treaties with the U.S. Gov.) - They were also promised food, money and other help
  • 14. Clash of culture► Indians and settlers looked at the world differently► Settlers felt that the resources were their to be used - Large scale hunting, mining, and farming► Plains Indians used only the resources they needed for their actual needs - They saw the white settlers as being greedy and destructive
  • 15. Fighting begins► By 1860s - Treaties were being broken by both sides► Settlers continued to pass through areas where they were not allowed► Groups of Indians raided white settlements and wagon trains► 1864 - Sand Creek Massacre - Colorado militia attacked Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek - Indians thought they were under the protection of a nearby government outpost - Over 100 Indians were slaughtered (including women and children)
  • 16. Fighting begins► 1866 - Chief Red Cloud (Sioux:) defeated Captain W.J. Fetterman and 80 U.S. army soldiers  Led them into a trap and killed them
  • 17. Fighting begins► Little Bighorn (most famous battle of the Indian wars)► The Black Hills of South Dakota had been set aside for the Sioux and Northern Cheyenne► 1874 - U.S. Army exploring party found gold - Settlers went looking for gold - Gov. tried to buy the Black Hills (Sioux considered land sacred) - 1875 and 1876 - Sioux warrior left their reservations and united under the leadership of two Sioux chiefs (Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse)
  • 18. Fighting begins► June 25, 1876 - George Armstrong Custer and several hundred army soldiers found a Sioux camp near the Little Bighorn River - Custer gained fame fighting in Civil War - Admirers considered him a daring brilliant officer - Critics considered him a dangerous showoff► Custer had orders to attack any Indians he came into contact with► When he attacked he was actually stepping into a trap► Custer and all of his men were killed - Became known as "Custers Last Stand"
  • 19. Fighting begins► People in the East were shocked by the news of the Battle of Little Bighorn - U.S. Gov. sent 1000s of troops to fight the Indians► The Battle of Little Bighorn was the last Indian Victory in the Indian Wars - 1876 - U.S. Army defeated the Sioux - Sitting Bull and his followers escaped to Canada► Crazy Horse was arrested - He was fatally stabbed as he was being arrested - Not sure if guard or another Indian stabbed him
  • 20. Chief Joseph► Led the Nez Perce people► Nez Perce lived in northwest (Oregon and Idaho) - Fished for salmon, gathered food, and hunted► Chief Joseph refused to sell land to government► 1877 - Gov. ordered the Nez Perce people to move to a reservation - They fled and tried to evade the army► Captured about 40 miles south of Canada - Chief Joseph made speech - Said that he would fight no more
  • 21. Southwest Indians► Navajo were forced to move to reservations in the east - March called "The Long Walk"► Reservation was a failure - Navajo allowed to return home► Mid 1870s - Apache were forced to move away from their traditional territory - Geronimo - led his people off the reservation - Evaded the army many times due to their knowledge of southern Arizona - 1886 - Geronimo captured and forced to live far away from his people
  • 22. Indians way of life destroyed► Whites killed buffalo► Indians depended on buffalo► Indians were unable to survive without the buffalo► Many Indians turned to the Ghost Dance Religion - It taught that the spirits of the dead Indians would return to help the Indians reclaim their land► Many whites were fearful of this movement - Asked the army for help - Cavalry rounded up Sioux men on the Pine Ridge Reservation - Place called wounded knee
  • 23. Indians way of life destroyed► Wounded Knee Massacre - 300 men, women, and children Sioux were killed - Considered to be the last battle of the Indian Wars
  • 24. Assimilation► Conditions grew worse as more Indians were forced on to reservations► Reformers began calling for changes► Many white though that only solution was to make the Indians become more like the whites - Assimilation - to adopt the culture of the people around you
  • 25. Assimilation► Dawes Act (1887) - intended to make Indians give up their traditions and accept White customs - Reservation lands were divided up in farm plots for families and individuals (40 to 160 acres) - Any remaining land was sold to white settlers - Profits used to pay for Indian schools - Indians who accepted the plots of land could become citizens for the 1st time► Dawes Act failed - Many western Indians didnt want to settle down as farmers - Lacked tools and training - Many sold their plots to white settlers cheap► End 1800s - situation of the American Indians was tragic - Lost land, people, and culture - 20th century U.S. government finally realizes importance of Indian way of life
  • 26. Cowboys► 1/6 were Mexican American► Some were black - Nat Love - born in a slave cabin - Moved west when he was a teenager - Became famous performing in rodeos
  • 27. Birth of the Cattle Industry► Cowboys roots were in Texas► Small herds - (only sold cattle locally)► Joseph McCoy organized 1st cattle drive - Drove cattle to Abilene Kansas (Railroad) - Cattle sold for $40 per head in the east ($3 per head in Texas)► Dodge city also becomes a cattle town
  • 28. Long drives► Cowboys herded cattle over the open plains to cattle towns► 12 cowboys 3000 head► Made sure that cattle had plenty of grass to eat along the way► Drives were tough - Had to keep cattle together - Watch for thieves
  • 29. Wild West► Cowboys ended drives in cattle towns - Were dirty and nasty - Werent always law abiding - Had money to spend► Large spaces with little settlement made it hard to catch outlaws - Frank and Jesse James became legendary bank robbers - Belle Starr became famous cattle thief► Westerners formed vigilante groups - Groups that took the law into their own hands
  • 30. The End of the Open Range► Late 1800s -long drives end► Overgrazing, bad weather from 1883 to 1887 destroyed whole herds► Ranchers began keeping smaller herds that yielded more meat per animal► Tick fever caused land owners to cutoff land from the long drives► Fence land with barbed wire & turn open range into separate ranches
  • 31. Summarizer► 1. Why do you think assimilation policy of the Dawes Act failed?  Lack of support by the government, abuses of the act by white opportunists, and Native Americans’ lack of interest in private property.► What economic opportunities drew large numbers of people to the Great Plains beginning in the mid-1800s?  Growth of the railroads, the burgeoning cattle industry, and government support of “free land”
  • 32. Settling onthe Great Plains Settlers on the Great Plains transform the land despite great hardships.
  • 33. Farming the Plain► Gov. encouraged western settlement► (1862) Homestead Act - Gov. offered 160 acres to head of family over age 21 in return for living on the land 5 years and improving it - 1862 to 1900 – 6000,000 families settled in the west
  • 34. Farming the Plain► Exodusters - Southern African-American settlers in Kansas► Gov. created Department of agriculture  Introduced new crops (Russian wheat) that could survive harsh winters  Morrill Act of 1862, 1890 financed agricultural colleges
  • 35. Life on the farming frontier► Lumber was scarce► Many settlers dug homes into sides of ravines or hills► Made soddy or sod home by stacking blocks of turf - Snakes & bugs sometimes crawled into cracks - Burned cow chips for fuel► Grew cash crops (wheat and com)► Had to fight year around battle against weather (blizzards and extreme heat)
  • 36. Life on the farming frontier► Homesteaders were virtually alone (Had to be self-sufficient)► Women did men’s work (plowing, harvesting, shearing sheep) - Also did traditional work (carding wool, making soap, canning vegetables) - Some worked for communities (sponsor schools, churches)
  • 37. Review- Summarizing ► How did new ► Answer: Inventions inventions change such as barbed wire, farming in the West? the steel plow, and the reaper, helped farmers increase production and led to the development of bonanza farms.
  • 38. Farmers in Debt► Railroads, investors created bonanza farms (huge, single-crop spreads)► 1885 to1890 - droughts bankrupted single- crop operations► Rising cost of shipping grain pushed farmers into debt
  • 39. Closing the Frontier► 1872, Yellowstone National Park created to protect some wilderness► 1890s - No frontier left - miners, ranchers, and farmers had swelled the population► April 22, 1889 - Governemt gave signal for settlers to settle the Oklahoma territory - It was laid out within the day - 60,000 people lived there by the end of the year► Sooners - some people snuck into Oklahoma before the Gov. gave the signal
  • 40. Summarizer► Review the changes in technology that influenced the life of settlers on the Great Plain in the late 1800s.► Without technology there would have been more crop dehydration; wandering animals and trampled crops; and crops ruined by inclement weather.
  • 41. Section 3 Farmers and the Populist Movement Farmers unite to address theireconomic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement.
  • 42. Warm Up- Mary Elizabeth Lease► Left home to teach on the Kansas Plains► After marrying Charles Lease, joined the Farmers’ Alliance Movement
  • 43. Unrest in Rural America► The growth of urban America made possible because farmers were so productive► Farmers felt poor compared to city people► Farm life seemed boring compared to the exciting opportunities of the city
  • 44. Hard Times for Farmers► 1867 - Oliver H. Kelley started the Patrons of Husbandry (Grange) - Hoped to fight the loneliness of farm life and farming methods - Open to both men and women► Meetings were held at local schools - Both social and educational► Late 1800s - most farmers werent self sufficient - Grew cash crops► Most were in debt - Western farmers owed banks money for their land and equipment - Southern farmers had taken on debt to rebuild farms destroyed in the Civil War
  • 45. Low Prices and High Cost► Farmers lives were hard - droughts, floods, insects, and animal diseases► 1870s - faced another problem - Low prices for their crops - Sank farther into debt► Caused by overproduction - More people became farmers - Farming methods improved► Became more expensive to operate a farm - Tariffs on imported farm equipment - Railroads raised prices
  • 46. The Granger Movement► Turned their attention to economic and political issues► Economic goal - avoid using middlemen - People who made a living storing, transporting and selling product - Cut into farmers’ profits and added to cost for buyer► Grangers created cooperatives - An organization owned and operated by those who use its services - They shared crops in some places - Allowed them to set their prices► Politically - they elected legislatures that put limits on railroad and storage prices - Called Granger laws
  • 47. The Populist Party► 1880s - Several political parties combined► Populism - movement of the people► Populist Party wants reforms► Economic: increase money supply, graduated income tax, & federal loans► Political: Senate elected by popular vote, secret ballot & 8-hour day► 1892 - Populist candidates elected at different levels of government► Democratic Party eventually adopted platform
  • 48. Debate Over Money Policy► Pitted debtors against creditors► Debtors wanted more money to be put into circulation► Wanted the government to coin more silver (bimetallism)► Bimetallism - system using both silver and gold to back currency► Silverites - would create more money, stimulate economy► Creditors wanted to limit the amount of money - Favored gold standard► Gold standard - backing currency with gold only► Paper money considered worthless if cannot be exchanged for metal► Gold bugs - gold only would create more stable if expensive currency
  • 49. Election of 1892► 1892 - Populist nominate James B. Weaver for president► He had the following proposals - Wanted Gov. to control and operate railroads, telegraph and telephone systems - Wanted secret ballot in elections - Wanted graduated income tax - Wanted U.S. senators to be elected directly by the people rather than state legislatures - Demanded shorter working hours for labor► Grover Cleveland won 1892 election
  • 50. That’s Just My Baby Daddy ► While running for president in 1884, New York Governor Grover Cleveland admitted he had a 10-year-old son out of wedlock with a woman in Buffalo.
  • 51. The Panic of 1893► Railroads expanded faster than markets - Some went bankrupt► Government’s gold supply became depleted - Led to rush on banks - Businesses, banks collapse - Panic became depression
  • 52. Election of 1896► Money was the central issue► Republicans nominated William McKinley - Supported big business (gold standard)► Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan - Supported silver► Populists endorsed Bryan & chose own VP to maintain party identity
  • 53. Election of 1896► Candidates ran different campaigns - McKinley didnt go out and campaign - Considered undignified - Accepted visitors at his home Bryan launched something like a modem campaign - Traveled by train made speeches► Bryan carried the south and west (except California)► McKinley carried northeast and California - Won more electoral votes► Urban America defeated rural America
  • 54. The End of Populism► 1896 - McKinley elected president► Populism collapsed► Left legacy: - Showed the powerless could organize & have political impact - Agenda of reforms enacted in 20th century
  • 55. Summarizer