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THE PROGRESSIVE ERA
1890-1915
The first modern reform movement











Women’s suffrage
Child labor laws
Prohibition
Conservation
Trust bust...
Change: Immigration
After the depression
of the 1890s,
immigration jumped
from a low of 3.5
million in that
decade to a hi...
Change: Urbanization
Reformer
Jacob Riis
documented
poor
immigrants in
the slums on
the lower east
side in NYC in
How the ...
Change: Industrialization
Lewis Hine
documented
poor laborers,
especially
children,
working long
hours under
harsh
conditi...
Other changes
T. Roosevelt






W. Wilson



Technological changes that impact
communication/transportation
Developme...
Middle Class Concerns











Economic power concentrating in the hands
of a few industrialists
Rising power of ...
Who were the progressives?
Middle class
 Educated
 Residents of cities
 Protestants
 Optimistic about human nature
 W...
Who were the progressives?




Fought for social reform and believed
government power could be used to
achieve it
Believ...
Who were the progressives?






Feared immigration (Jane Addams an
exception)
Wanted to humanize big business, not
eli...
Influences
Susan B.
Antony &
Elizabeth C.
Stanton




Horace Mann

Reformers (1840s)
Populism (1890s)

Grimke
Sisters

W...
Influences




Pragmatism--practical. From John Dewey
and William James. Pragmatists believed
that people should take a ...
Influences


Scientific Management—efficiency.
From Frederick Taylor. Businesses and
governments should organize in the m...
Influences


Gladden

Rauschenbusch



Social Gospel—Christians have social
responsibility (Washington Gladden,
Walter R...
Influences






Professionalism—growth of
professions and professional
organizations.
American Medical Association
Am...
Influences





Civic organizations
National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People
Society of American Indi...
Influences
Presidents
Wilson and T.
Roosevelt



Alice Paul

Charismatic leaders/feminists

Margaret Sanger

Eugene V. De...
Influences
Ida Tarbell
Lincoln
Steffens
Upton Sinclair

Ray S. Baker
S. S. McClure
David G.
Phillips



Writers (i.e. Muc...
Influences
William
Glackens
George
Bellows

Robert Henri
John Sloan
George Luks



Artists (i.e. Ashcan School)
Influences
Booker T. Washington & Tuskegee Inst.

Niagara
Movement
Influences
IWW



Labor leaders & unions

Knights of
Labor
AF of L
American
Railway Union

S. Gompers
E. Debs

Bill Haywo...
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The progressive era_(1)

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The progressive era_(1)

  1. 1. THE PROGRESSIVE ERA 1890-1915
  2. 2. The first modern reform movement          Women’s suffrage Child labor laws Prohibition Conservation Trust busting Shorter working hours Voting reforms Graduated income tax Social welfare reforms
  3. 3. Change: Immigration After the depression of the 1890s, immigration jumped from a low of 3.5 million in that decade to a high of 9 million in the first decade of the new century. After the 1880s, immigrants increasingly came from Eastern and Southern European countries, Asia, Canada, and Latin America. New Immigration 1880-1920s
  4. 4. Change: Urbanization Reformer Jacob Riis documented poor immigrants in the slums on the lower east side in NYC in How the Other Half Lives
  5. 5. Change: Industrialization Lewis Hine documented poor laborers, especially children, working long hours under harsh conditions.
  6. 6. Other changes T. Roosevelt    W. Wilson  Technological changes that impact communication/transportation Development of modern social sciences New styles of presidential leadership New role of US as a power in world affairs Great White Fleet 1907
  7. 7. Middle Class Concerns        Economic power concentrating in the hands of a few industrialists Rising power of big business Increasing gap between rich and poor Violent conflicts between labor and capital Dominance of corrupt political machines in the cities Minorities: racist, Jim Crow laws in the South Political reform and greater democracy William “Boss” Tweed
  8. 8. Who were the progressives? Middle class  Educated  Residents of cities  Protestants  Optimistic about human nature  Women found a public role in reform  Ida Tarbell & Florence Kelley
  9. 9. Who were the progressives?   Fought for social reform and believed government power could be used to achieve it Believed that cleaning up an environment would improve the people living in it—(saloons, movie houses, temperance, prostitution, city beautiful movement) Carry Nation & Lincoln Steffens
  10. 10. Who were the progressives?    Feared immigration (Jane Addams an exception) Wanted to humanize big business, not eliminate it Believed in the virtue of efficiency Jane Addams & Frederick Taylor
  11. 11. Influences Susan B. Antony & Elizabeth C. Stanton   Horace Mann Reformers (1840s) Populism (1890s) Grimke Sisters W. J. Bryan Mary Lease Dorothea Dix
  12. 12. Influences   Pragmatism--practical. From John Dewey and William James. Pragmatists believed that people should take a pragmatic or practical approach to morals, ideals, and knowledge. They should experiment with ideas and laws and test them in action until they found something that seemed to work well for the better ordering of society William James (top), John Dewey (bottom)
  13. 13. Influences  Scientific Management—efficiency. From Frederick Taylor. Businesses and governments should organize in the most efficient manner possible. Time and motion studies efficiency
  14. 14. Influences  Gladden Rauschenbusch  Social Gospel—Christians have social responsibility (Washington Gladden, Walter Rauschenbusch) Goals of the movement were ending child labor, a weekly day off, a living wage, improved working conditions for women, and religious/moral education for the poor. Because they stressed God’s love for all over damnation, it was known as a “church of love.”
  15. 15. Influences     Professionalism—growth of professions and professional organizations. American Medical Association American Bar Association American Federation of Teachers
  16. 16. Influences    Civic organizations National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Society of American Indians (1911) An 1890 photo of Carlos Montezuma, a member of the Society of American Indians
  17. 17. Influences Presidents Wilson and T. Roosevelt  Alice Paul Charismatic leaders/feminists Margaret Sanger Eugene V. Debs W. E. B. DuBois
  18. 18. Influences Ida Tarbell Lincoln Steffens Upton Sinclair Ray S. Baker S. S. McClure David G. Phillips  Writers (i.e. Muckrakers)
  19. 19. Influences William Glackens George Bellows Robert Henri John Sloan George Luks  Artists (i.e. Ashcan School)
  20. 20. Influences Booker T. Washington & Tuskegee Inst. Niagara Movement
  21. 21. Influences IWW  Labor leaders & unions Knights of Labor AF of L American Railway Union S. Gompers E. Debs Bill Haywood

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