Quiz # 1 Book of SecretsPut clues in order:1. Native American plank2. Paris, France3. Surrender your hand4. Resolute desk5. The debt that all men paid6. Mount Rushmore7. Buckingham Palace8. Statue of Liberty9. Symbol of eagle and scroll10. Five key letter word (death)11. The president’s Book12. Cloudless rain13. Laboulaye Lady14. Oval Office, White House15. Noble bird1. What does Cibola means?2. What native language was the plank written?3. Who was the General that fought in the LittleBighorn4. Name the three place where the Statue ofLiberty created by Laboulaye can be found.5. What is the resolute desk made out of?6. Name the year that the Statue of Liberty wasbuilt.7. Name the two president who did not use theresolute desk.8. Name the Queen of England that gave theresolute desk as a gift to US.9. Name the place where George Washingtonlived.10. Where was the President’s Book located?11. Who said, “ the last full measure ofdevotion?” And what speech did hementioned it?12. Who was the first president to receive theresolute desk from the Queen of England13. Who was the president who destroyed theplank.14. What type of bird is known as the noble bird.
Homestead Act• To settle the land,government gave 160acres of land to citizens– Rules:• American citizen orimmigrant filing forcitizenship• Build house• Live in house 6 monthsout of year• Farm land 5 yrs in a rowbefore ownership set372,000 new farms - 600,000landclaims – 80 million acres
Native American vs. New Settlers• Great Plains: areaof land betweenMississippi River andRocky Mountains.– Natives deemedsettlers as invaders– Sacred land invaded– Indians were nomads• Move from place toplace…why?– Food, survival,buffalo
Buffalo• Meat (some dried forwinter)• Hides – teppes andclothing• Sinew (muscle, tendon,ligament) made intothread, bowstring• Bones- tools, horns foreating utensils• Dried dung- fuel• Rough side of tongue-hairbrush• Hunted only what they need• disturb land and creatures aslittle as possible– any wasteful or harmful use ofenvironment upset vision ofbalanced world
Sand Creek Massacre- 1864(Colorado)• Gold was found• Natives forced tolive in a barrenland raided nearbytrails for food– Gen. Curtistelegram colonelJohn Chivington“no peace, killand scalp, all bigand little” (wantsrevenge for thedeath of his family)– attacked sleepingvillage- 450 died(mostly women andchildren- mutilatedbodies)• after governmentpromise protection
Battle of the HundredSlain (FettermanMassacre) 1866• Governmentpromise land inColorado to theIndians forever– government neededto build a roadthrough Indian lands(Bozeman Trail)– soldiers continue tobuild forts on the trail
Chief RedCloud• appealed to government-failed• Cheyenne, Arapaho andSioux began guerrillawarfare (small bands ofsurprise raids to harasstroops)• Sioux ambush andsurrounded soldiers killingall 82 of them• Indians agreed to live inreservation (public land setaside for Natives)• (promise protection andsupplies- mostly arriveslate, insufficient and poorquality)
Battle of the LittleBig Horn 1876news of gold forced them outagain(Red Cloud and Spotted Tailappealed to government- failed)Gen. George Armstrong Custerled 265 men against 1,500warriorsSeveral mistakes:– Custer was warned by Indianscouts– Underestimate number of warriors– His men and horses exhausted– Split up regiment– Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Rain inthe Face led the Sioux-– Custer was killed and 2,500 of hismen within 20 min. that angeredmany American demandedrevenge– 1876- Crazy Horse captured-Sioux surrendered (died in jail)– Sitting Bull became an attraction(William F. Cody “Buffalo Bill” WildWest Show)
VanishingBuffalo• Buffalo was part ofIndian culture• thousands wereslaughtered to providefood for railroad crew• buffalo hunting becamesport• hunters shot buffalo bythousands (Buffalo Billkilled 4,300/8mnth• merchants discoveredthriving market forbuffalo hides– decrease from 13million few hundredsby 1900– Plain Indians could notsupport themselves– Depended ongovernment for food– Most money went tothe pockets of thecorrupt politicianPlease donot huntme!
Dawes Act 1887to break up traditionaltribeBring Indians intoAmerican life“Americanization”• Set up school forIndian children toteach them “Americanway”• Game them plot ofland, but many whitesettlers cheated themout of itAssimilation:– attempt in which onesociety becomes a partof another, moredominant society byadopting its culture
Wounded Knee(S. Dakota)1890some Indians resisted theAmericanizationSioux practiced traditional dance“Ghost Dance”sacred ritual – to call buffalo backmisinterpreted as a call to war– summoned troops to put a stop toit– arrested several hundred of groupof Indians, in confusion someonefired a shot accidentally- troopsturned their machine gun in thedefenseless Indians– 300 men, women, childrenkilled– symbol of the sad fate of theIndian people and itsvanishing culture
Chapter 13 Section 1Workbook- Questions andAnswers1. How did the discovery of gold affect thesettlement of the West? (page 410 topparagraph.)
Indian Reservations TodayIndian Reservations Today
Quiz Ch 13 S11. Policy to Americanize the Natives2. Sacred rituals of the Natives to call on their ancestors to bring back theirway of life3. Event where 400 sleeping members of a tribe where massacre by JohnChivington for revenge4. Two things Buffalo were used by the Natives5. Free land of 160 acres given to anyone who were willing to farm it for 5years6. Battle where. Gen. Custer made several mistakes and cost him his life7. Event where troops mistaken it as a call for war killing 3008. Attempt in which one society becomes part of another dominant society9. Event where natives killed 82 troops in Bozeman Trail10. Public land set aside for nativesBONUS:1. Two reason for vanishing buffalo2. What is the region between Mississippi River and Rocky Mountain3. Chief that led the killing of 82 troops
Exodusters-thousands of African American migrating fromExodusters-thousands of African American migrating fromSouth to Great PlainsSouth to Great Plains
Hardships• Lived in soddy– Homes made of sod:grass, root and dirt.($3.00)• Livable homesteadcost ($1000)• Difficulty farming forfive years to claimland• Bugs:– grasshoppers, locusts• ate wheat, ryebarley fields– mosquitos• Carried disease• Drought– Reduced landproductivity
Land Use: As Buffalo disappear, cattle willLand Use: As Buffalo disappear, cattle willflourishflourish
20OPEN RANGE- theareas of public domainnorth of Texas where morethan 5,000,000 cattle weredriven to fatten and beshipped off to slaughter.In response to the need formeat, ranchers beganrounding up the herds oflonghorns (breed ofsturdy, long horn cattle).They drove the herdshundreds of miles calledlong drives (overlandtransport).Ranchers employedcowhands to tend thecattle and drive the herdsto the market.Their job was to keep thecattle moving and roundof strays.
The Cattle Trails• ChisholmTrail- majorcattle routefrom SanAntonio,Texas toOklahoma toKansas
Life of a CowboyLife of a Cowboy• Cowboys or “buckaroo”(vaqueros)- skilled riders whoherded cattle on ranches• Wear chaps (chaparreras ) orleather overall• Eats “jerky” (charqui) or driedstrips of meat• Bronco caballo or rough or wildhorse now known as bronco• Mestenos (strays) sameMustangs that American tame• Ranch (rancho)• Corral and rodeo were alsoborrowed from Spanish
23ranchers put up fences in their fieldsranchers put up fences in their fieldswith barbed wirewith barbed wire. As more farmers. As more farmersstrung barbed wire,strung barbed wire, the open rangethe open rangebegan to disappear.began to disappear. Bad weatherBad weatherended the cattle kingdom herdsended the cattle kingdom herds. The. Thebitter cold of the next winter killedbitter cold of the next winter killedmillions of cattle. By the spring ofmillions of cattle. By the spring of1887, nine out of ten cattle have frozen1887, nine out of ten cattle have frozento death.to death.
Prospecting- act of searching for goldProspecting- act of searching for gold
27Many Americans wereMany Americans werelured to the West by thelured to the West by thechance to strike it rich bychance to strike it rich bymining gold and silver.mining gold and silver.The Western MiningThe Western Miningboom had begun with theboom had begun with theCaliforniaCalifornia Gold RushGold Rush ofof1849.1849.Gold or silver StrikeGold or silver Strike
28In 1859, two young prospectors struck gold in theSierra Nevada lands. Henry Comstock discovered avein of gold called a lode.The Comstock Lode attracted thousands of prospectors.
29Thousands of people cameThousands of people cameWest to supply the minersWest to supply the minerswith materials such as tools,with materials such as tools,food, and clothing. Peoplefood, and clothing. Peopleopened restaurants, boardingopened restaurants, boardinghouses, laundries, etc.houses, laundries, etc.• Miners arrive, tent citiesMiners arrive, tent citiesformed,formed,• later became towns and cities.later became towns and cities.• Mining boomMining boom
30When the gold was gone the city’s turnedWhen the gold was gone the city’s turnedintointo ghost townsghost towns. A. A ghost town was anwas anabandoned town.abandoned town.
33What does this political cartoon tell you about the Populist Party?
34At the end of 1896,the Populist Partybroke up andWilliam McKinleybecame the newPresident.President William McKinley
35To the Indians, the railroad was a terrifyingmonster, an “iron horse” letting out black smokeand moving at stunning speeds.The Railroads
36As cities grew theFederal Governmentencouraged railroadbuilding in the West.During the Civil War,Congress loaned moneyto the railroadcompanies. Therailroad companies builtrailroads to connect theEast and the West.
37In 1863, two companies began the race to buildthe first transcontinental railroad. They werecalled the Central Pacific and Union PacificRailroad. The Transcontinental Railroadwas a railroad that stretched across thefrom the east coast to west coast.
38Both companies building the railroad had troublegetting workers. Labor was scarce, backbreaking, anddangerous. The pay was also very low. Many of therailroad companies used immigrant workers to build therailroad. The railroad used thousands of workers fromChina, Ireland, Mexico, and Africa. Many workerswere killed by snow storms and avalanches.
39The Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad met atPromontory Point on May 10, 1869. They hammered a goldenspike into the rail that joined the 2 tracks. People in thecountry celebrated the goals achieved by the two railroads.Before long other major railroad lines will link to the West andEast. Soon wherever rail lines went, towns and cities spring upall along the tracks.The Transcontinental Railroad. The golden spike