Closing The Western Frontier

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Closing The Western Frontier

  1. 1. The Closing of the Western Frontier Susan Pojer
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>What national issues emerged in the process of closing the western frontier? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the West hold such an important place in the American imagination? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways is the West romanticized in American culture? </li></ul>
  3. 3. WESTWARD MOVEMENT After government was stable people in the east began to Move west even more than before. Manifest Destiny, Railroads, Adventure, free land and profit all lead to the growing need of Americans to migrate to the frontier. ***Why would the government offer free land to people out west?
  4. 4. the Railroad builders
  5. 5. RAILROADS <ul><li>Transcontinental – East to West </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to get people out west – more willing to come. </li></ul><ul><li>Many came out west working on the railroads (Irish, Chinese, blacks, etc.) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Railroad Construction
  7. 7. Promontory Point, UT (May 10, 1869)
  8. 8. the cowboys
  9. 9. COWBOYS <ul><li>Huge cattle population out west. </li></ul><ul><li>Government land could be used for grazing </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle had to be herded over long distances – hard life for cowboys. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Bronc Buster Frederick Remington
  11. 11. Black Cowboys
  12. 12. the GUNSLINGERS
  13. 13. Colt .45 Revolver God didn’t make men equal. Colonel Colt did!
  14. 14. Legendary Gunslingers & Train Robbers Jesse James Billy the Kid
  15. 15. Dodge City Peace Commission, 1890
  16. 16. the MINERS
  17. 17. Prospecting
  18. 18. Mining Centers: 1900
  19. 19. Anaconda Copper Mining Co. (MT)
  20. 20. Mining (“Boom”) Towns-- Now Ghost Towns Calico, CA
  21. 21. The Cattlemen & the Sheep herders
  22. 22. RANCHERS <ul><li>Free land for cattle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homestead Act – 160 acres free – must farm for 5 years and build a structure with a window and a door. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People would race for land – Oklahoma Land Rush (Boomers and Sooners) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Homesteads From Public Lands
  24. 24. RANCHERS CONT. <ul><li>Ranchers – wealthy could use free government land </li></ul><ul><li>Issues between farmers and ranchers </li></ul><ul><li>Hard life </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Cattle Trails
  26. 26. Land Use: 1880s
  27. 27. New Agricultural Technology “ Prairie Fan” Water Pump Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”]
  28. 28. Barbed Wire Joseph Glidden
  29. 29. The Range Wars Sheep Herders Cattle Ranchers
  30. 30. The Farmers
  31. 31. FARMERS <ul><li>Homestead Act </li></ul><ul><li>Built fences to keep cattle out </li></ul>
  32. 32. What is the Message of this Picture?
  33. 33. The Realty--A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
  34. 34. Frontier Settlements: 1870-1890
  35. 35. Minority groups in the West
  36. 36. Black “Exoduster” Homesteaders
  37. 37. Blacks Moving West
  38. 38. The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
  39. 39. A Romantic View
  40. 40. The Buffalo Soldiers & the Indian Wars
  41. 41. The “Chinese Question” <ul><li>Exclusion Act (1882) - Oriental Exclusion Act - Chinese Exclusion Act </li></ul>
  42. 42. the plains indians
  43. 43. NATIVE AMERICANS DOWNFALL <ul><li>LAND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of land to westward movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUFFALO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land blocked – killed for sport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISEASE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Pox - #1 cause of death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OPINION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear – seen as uncivilized - “Only good Indian is a dead Indian” </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1851) Colorado Gold Rush (1859)
  45. 45. INDIAN WARS <ul><li>SAND CREEK MASSACRE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Col. John Chivington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed 450 Cheyenne (mostly women and children) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Black Kettle tried to hold up white flag – it was ignored. “Kill and scalp all” </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Colonel John Chivington Kill and scalp all, big and little! Sandy Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864
  47. 47. Capt. William J. Fetterman 80 soldiers massacred December 21, 1866
  48. 48. Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek (1867) 2 nd Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868) Reservation Policy
  49. 49. Gold Found in the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory! 1874
  50. 50. BATTLE OF LITTLE BIG HORN <ul><li>George Custer </li></ul><ul><li>1876 – he lead a troop of 264 men toward a Sioux Camp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting Bull waiting for him – Custer was surrounded and he and all the men were killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>**Greatest Indian Victory </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Chief Sitting Bull Gen. George Armstrong Custer
  52. 52. CHIEF JOSEPH <ul><li>Believed Black Hills could not be sold </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted Peace </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to run with people to Canada – many died </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually captured and forced to a reservation </li></ul>
  53. 53. Chief Joseph I will fight no more forever! Nez Percé tribal retreat (1877)
  54. 54. Geronimo, Apache Chief: Hopeless Cause
  55. 55. Dawes Severalty Act (1887): Assimilation Policy Carlisle Indian School, PA
  56. 56. DAWES ACT <ul><li>Broke up Indian land – 160 acre units </li></ul><ul><li>Not allowed to sell land for 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>Schools set up to “civilize” – English, Christianity, etc. </li></ul>
  57. 57. GHOST DANCE <ul><li>Celebration – not a call to war </li></ul><ul><li>Vision that chief would drive white man away </li></ul><ul><li>Military concerned – Chief Sitting Bull killed </li></ul>
  58. 58. Arapahoe “Ghost Dance”, 1890
  59. 59. WOUNDED KNEE <ul><li>Chief Big Foot led the Sioux away </li></ul><ul><li>Military rounded up 350 freezing and starving Sioux – taken to Wounded Knee SD. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shot fired – 300 unarmed Indians killed and left to freeze. Many children butchered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended Indian Wars. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Chief Big Foot’s Lifeless Body Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
  61. 61. Indian Reservations Today
  62. 62. Crazy Horse Monument: Black Hills, SD Lakota Chief
  63. 63. Korczak Ziolkowski, Sculptor Crazy Horse Monument His vision of the finished memorial.
  64. 64. Mt. Rushmore: Black Hills, SD
  65. 65. the myth & legend of the west
  66. 66. The Traditional View of the West
  67. 67. William “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show
  68. 68. “ Buffalo Bill” Cody & Sitting Bull
  69. 69. Legendary Female Western Characters Calamity Jane Annie Oakley
  70. 70. The Fall of the Cowboy Frederick Remington
  71. 71. what were the long-term effects of the westward experience?
  72. 72. Destruction of the Buffalo Herds The near extinction of the buffalo.
  73. 73. Yellowstone National Park First national park established in 1872.
  74. 74. National Parks
  75. 75. Conservation Movement John Muir With President Theodore Roosevelt
  76. 76. Sierra Club Founded in 1892

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