Western Frontier

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Western Frontier

  1. 1. Western Frontier
  2. 2. How did the US acquire lands? <ul><li>Louisiana Purchase, Mexican-American War, Annexation of TX, Adams-Onis Treaty, & Treaty of Ghent (Oregon Territory) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why did people come West? <ul><li>Escape debt &/or the law </li></ul><ul><li>Economic gain (land was cheap, but not fertile) </li></ul><ul><li>Social gains: Easily change occupations/reinvent yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Lure of gold & silver </li></ul>
  4. 4. Who was already there? <ul><li>Plains Indians (Sioux, Cheyenne, & others) </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Removal Act (1830): Pres. Jackson & Congress negotiated treaties that forced NA to move West. </li></ul><ul><li>Trail of Tears: Cherokee were forced to make 800 mile journey & live on inferior land. </li></ul><ul><li>Worcester v Georgia: Supreme Court stated that NA had right to keep land, but Jackson made them move anyway. </li></ul><ul><li>NA did not believe land could be owned </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded Knee: US army slaughtered 350 unarmed NA, including women & children. Brought Indian Wars to an end. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Economic Opportunities: Ranching <ul><li>TX long horns (cattle) were herded on the dry Western grasslands (first brought by Spanish) </li></ul><ul><li>American cowboys learned to round up, rope, brand, and care for cattle from Mexican vaqueros (cowboys) </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for beef soared after Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads increased beef production </li></ul>
  6. 6. Railroads <ul><li>Chinese & Irish immigrants did most of the dangerous/grueling work </li></ul><ul><li>Helped transport beef & crops to markets in the East </li></ul><ul><li>Transported supplies needed for Western settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Transcontinental RR (1869): RR went from coast to coast. Met at Promontory Point, UT </li></ul>
  7. 7. Free Land <ul><li>Homestead Act: 160 acres free for US citizen if agreed to cultivate for 5 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Oklahoma Land Rush (1889): US gov’t opened NA lands to white settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>Morrill Land Act: Gave $ to establish farming colleges & technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Soddies: Settlers lived in shelters made of grass & mud in the sides of hills. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Soddy
  9. 9. Gold <ul><li>CA gold rush (49ers) </li></ul><ul><li>SD, CO, AK had gold discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Only 200 out of every 200,000 struck it rich </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problems <ul><li>Severe weather: Cold winters, Dry summers, tornadoes </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Took gov’t a long time to regulate/police large, vast area </li></ul>

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