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Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
Memory Chapter 10
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Memory Chapter 10

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  • 1. Chapter 10 Memory and Thought Section 1
  • 2. FOCUS
    • Which one would be more frightening to you:
    • Not being able to remember the past
    • OR
    • Not being able to learn anything new
    • WHY?
  • 3. Story
    • Page 273
  • 4. The Processes of Memory
    • Encoding
    • Storage
    • Retrieval
  • 5. Encoding
    • The transforming of information so that the nervous system can process it
    • You use your senses to encode and establish a memory
  • 6. Storage
    • The process by which information is maintained over time
    • Can be stored a few seconds or for a lot longer
  • 7. Retrieval
    • Occurs when information is brought to mind from storage
  • 8. Three Stages of Memory
    • Sensory Memory
    • Short-term Memory
    • Long-term Memory
  • 9. Sensory Memory
    • The senses of sight and hearing are able to hold an input for a fraction of a second before it disappears
    • George Sperling
      • Iconic memory- hold visual input for up to a second
      • Echoic memory- auditory sensory memory
  • 10. Three functions of sensory memory
    • Prevents you from being overwhelmed
    • Gives you decision time
      • Gives you a chance to process whether or not you want the memory to remain in short term memory or forget it
    • Allows for continuity and stability in your world
  • 11. Short Term Memory
    • Does not necessarily involve paying close attention
    • Limited in capacity up to seven items
  • 12. Maintenance Rehearsal
    • A system for remembering that involves repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
    • Figure 10.3 “Spot the Real Penny”
  • 13. Chunking
    • The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember
    • Usually contains information that is of possible interest
    • Figure 10.4 “Using Short-term Memory”
  • 14. The Primacy-Recency Effect
    • Refers to the fact that we are better able to recall information presented at the beginning and end of a list
    • The middle is hard to remember because of a “split”; you focus your attention on remembering the previous ones and the rehearsing of the new part of the list
  • 15. Long-Term Memory
    • Storage of information over extended periods of time
    • Must reconstruct what you must recall when you need it
    • Contains representations of countless facts, experiences, or sensations
    • Prosopagnosia—page 279
  • 16. Types of Long-Term Memory
    • Semantic memory- knowledge of language, including its rules, words, and meanings
    • Episodic memory- chronological retention of the events of one’s life
  • 17. Types of Long-Term Memory
    • Declarative memory- stored knowledge that can be called forth consciously if needed
    • Procedural memory- permanent storage of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection
  • 18. Memory Centers of the Brain
    • Cortex
      • Short-term and long-term memory
    • Thalamus
      • Information processing
    • Hippocampus
      • Long-term Memory
    • Amygdala
      • Emotional associations
  • 19. The Case of H.M.
    • 1953
    • H.M. underwent brain surgery in which his hippocampus was removed to ease his epileptic seizures
    • His seizures decreased
    • His IQ actually rose slightly due to higher concentration levels
  • 20. The Case of H.M.
    • Doctors discovered that H.M. had lost the ability to store new long term memories
    • He could remember events that happened before the surgery
    • He could not remember events occurring after the surgery
    • H.M.’s brain could not transfer short-term information into long-term memory
  • 21.  

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