Memory Chapter 10


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Memory Chapter 10

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Memory and Thought Section 1
  2. 2. FOCUS <ul><li>Which one would be more frightening to you: </li></ul><ul><li>Not being able to remember the past </li></ul><ul><li> OR </li></ul><ul><li>Not being able to learn anything new </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Story <ul><li>Page 273 </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Processes of Memory <ul><li>Encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul>
  5. 5. Encoding <ul><li>The transforming of information so that the nervous system can process it </li></ul><ul><li>You use your senses to encode and establish a memory </li></ul>
  6. 6. Storage <ul><li>The process by which information is maintained over time </li></ul><ul><li>Can be stored a few seconds or for a lot longer </li></ul>
  7. 7. Retrieval <ul><li>Occurs when information is brought to mind from storage </li></ul>
  8. 8. Three Stages of Memory <ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Memory </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sensory Memory <ul><li>The senses of sight and hearing are able to hold an input for a fraction of a second before it disappears </li></ul><ul><li>George Sperling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic memory- hold visual input for up to a second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echoic memory- auditory sensory memory </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Three functions of sensory memory <ul><li>Prevents you from being overwhelmed </li></ul><ul><li>Gives you decision time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives you a chance to process whether or not you want the memory to remain in short term memory or forget it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows for continuity and stability in your world </li></ul>
  11. 11. Short Term Memory <ul><li>Does not necessarily involve paying close attention </li></ul><ul><li>Limited in capacity up to seven items </li></ul>
  12. 12. Maintenance Rehearsal <ul><li>A system for remembering that involves repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 10.3 “Spot the Real Penny” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Chunking <ul><li>The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember </li></ul><ul><li>Usually contains information that is of possible interest </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 10.4 “Using Short-term Memory” </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Primacy-Recency Effect <ul><li>Refers to the fact that we are better able to recall information presented at the beginning and end of a list </li></ul><ul><li>The middle is hard to remember because of a “split”; you focus your attention on remembering the previous ones and the rehearsing of the new part of the list </li></ul>
  15. 15. Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Storage of information over extended periods of time </li></ul><ul><li>Must reconstruct what you must recall when you need it </li></ul><ul><li>Contains representations of countless facts, experiences, or sensations </li></ul><ul><li>Prosopagnosia—page 279 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Semantic memory- knowledge of language, including its rules, words, and meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic memory- chronological retention of the events of one’s life </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Declarative memory- stored knowledge that can be called forth consciously if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural memory- permanent storage of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection </li></ul>
  18. 18. Memory Centers of the Brain <ul><li>Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term and long-term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional associations </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Case of H.M. <ul><li>1953 </li></ul><ul><li>H.M. underwent brain surgery in which his hippocampus was removed to ease his epileptic seizures </li></ul><ul><li>His seizures decreased </li></ul><ul><li>His IQ actually rose slightly due to higher concentration levels </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Case of H.M. <ul><li>Doctors discovered that H.M. had lost the ability to store new long term memories </li></ul><ul><li>He could remember events that happened before the surgery </li></ul><ul><li>He could not remember events occurring after the surgery </li></ul><ul><li>H.M.’s brain could not transfer short-term information into long-term memory </li></ul>