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Memory Chapter 10

Memory Chapter 10






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    Memory Chapter 10 Memory Chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 10 Memory and Thought Section 1
    • FOCUS
      • Which one would be more frightening to you:
      • Not being able to remember the past
      • OR
      • Not being able to learn anything new
      • WHY?
    • Story
      • Page 273
    • The Processes of Memory
      • Encoding
      • Storage
      • Retrieval
    • Encoding
      • The transforming of information so that the nervous system can process it
      • You use your senses to encode and establish a memory
    • Storage
      • The process by which information is maintained over time
      • Can be stored a few seconds or for a lot longer
    • Retrieval
      • Occurs when information is brought to mind from storage
    • Three Stages of Memory
      • Sensory Memory
      • Short-term Memory
      • Long-term Memory
    • Sensory Memory
      • The senses of sight and hearing are able to hold an input for a fraction of a second before it disappears
      • George Sperling
        • Iconic memory- hold visual input for up to a second
        • Echoic memory- auditory sensory memory
    • Three functions of sensory memory
      • Prevents you from being overwhelmed
      • Gives you decision time
        • Gives you a chance to process whether or not you want the memory to remain in short term memory or forget it
      • Allows for continuity and stability in your world
    • Short Term Memory
      • Does not necessarily involve paying close attention
      • Limited in capacity up to seven items
    • Maintenance Rehearsal
      • A system for remembering that involves repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
      • Figure 10.3 “Spot the Real Penny”
    • Chunking
      • The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember
      • Usually contains information that is of possible interest
      • Figure 10.4 “Using Short-term Memory”
    • The Primacy-Recency Effect
      • Refers to the fact that we are better able to recall information presented at the beginning and end of a list
      • The middle is hard to remember because of a “split”; you focus your attention on remembering the previous ones and the rehearsing of the new part of the list
    • Long-Term Memory
      • Storage of information over extended periods of time
      • Must reconstruct what you must recall when you need it
      • Contains representations of countless facts, experiences, or sensations
      • Prosopagnosia—page 279
    • Types of Long-Term Memory
      • Semantic memory- knowledge of language, including its rules, words, and meanings
      • Episodic memory- chronological retention of the events of one’s life
    • Types of Long-Term Memory
      • Declarative memory- stored knowledge that can be called forth consciously if needed
      • Procedural memory- permanent storage of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection
    • Memory Centers of the Brain
      • Cortex
        • Short-term and long-term memory
      • Thalamus
        • Information processing
      • Hippocampus
        • Long-term Memory
      • Amygdala
        • Emotional associations
    • The Case of H.M.
      • 1953
      • H.M. underwent brain surgery in which his hippocampus was removed to ease his epileptic seizures
      • His seizures decreased
      • His IQ actually rose slightly due to higher concentration levels
    • The Case of H.M.
      • Doctors discovered that H.M. had lost the ability to store new long term memories
      • He could remember events that happened before the surgery
      • He could not remember events occurring after the surgery
      • H.M.’s brain could not transfer short-term information into long-term memory