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  1. 1. Unit 2 Chapter 5 United States and Canada
  2. 2. What is a Region? <ul><li>A region is a broad geographical area distinguished by similar features. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Canada and the U.S. share the following characteristics: <ul><li>Physical features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocky Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vast deposits of fossil fuels and minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Populations that are wealthy, literate, and ethically diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Market economies that were based on agriculture, but now industrial </li></ul><ul><li>Have pollution and environment concerns </li></ul>
  4. 4. Western: Mountains, Plains, Plateaus <ul><li>Collisions between tectonic plates millions of years ago thrust up a series of sharp peaked mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sierra Nevada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cascade Range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coast Range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska Range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mount McKinley (24,320 feet) tallest in N. America </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Western: Mountains, Plains, Plateaus <ul><li>Rocky Mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic forces heaved slabs of rock upward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretches 3,000 miles from New Mexico to Alaska </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some peaks are higher than 14,000 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pikes Peak is located in Colorado </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Western: Mountains, Plains, Plateaus <ul><li>Columbia Plateau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between the Pacific range to the Rockies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the north and was formed by lava that seeped from the cracks of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colorado Plateau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat-topped mesas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Canyon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carved by the Colorado River and other major erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deepest walls plunge 6,000 feet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Western: Mountains, Plains, Plateaus <ul><li>Colorado Plateau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death Valley- lowest place in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada’s plateaus are colder and narrower when compared to the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located east of the Rockies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend 300 to 700 miles eastward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear flat, but the land slopes downward at about 10 feet per mile until the Mississippi River </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Eastern Mountains and Lowlands <ul><li>East from the Mississippi River, the land rises slowly into the Appalachian mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Appalachian Mountains are North America’s oldest mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd longest mountain range stretching from Quebec to central Alabama </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coastal lowlands lie east and south of the Appalachians </li></ul><ul><li>Piedmont- located between Appalachians and coastal lowlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A wide area of rolling hills </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Islands <ul><li>Oceanic islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are usually volcanic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lava accumulates on the ocean floor until it pushes through the water’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawaii (made up of 8 major and 124 smaller islands </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Islands <ul><li>Continental islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Un-submerged parts of the continental shelf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A shallow, underwater platform that forms a continental border </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greenland (world’s largest island) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Foundland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prince Edward Island </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manhattan Island (A major U.S. and world economic center) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Water Systems <ul><li>Lakes and rivers in the U.S. and Canada are important to economic development in that region </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide- is a high point or ridge that determines the direction in which rivers flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Headwaters- is the source of the river </li></ul><ul><li>Tributaries- small rivers that connect to larger rivers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rivers <ul><li>Mississippi River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flows 2,350 miles from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the world’s busiest waterways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fall line- marks the place where the higher land of the Piedmont drops to the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern rivers fall into rapids or waterfalls, preventing ships to travel farther inland </li></ul>
  13. 13. Water Systems <ul><li>Niagara Falls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms the border between U.S. and Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two drops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horseshoe Falls- adjoins the Canadian bank of the river </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Falls- adjoins the America bank of the river </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major source of hydroelectric power </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Lakes and other Waterways <ul><li>Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Ontario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Michigan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Superior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Erie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Huron </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Natural Resources <ul><li>Freshwater is one of many natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels and minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy resources (petroleum and natural gas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Texas (largest reserves of petroleum and natural gas) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska (2 nd in petroleum reserves) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appalachians, Wyoming, and British Columbia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Natural Resources <ul><li>Fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed from buried plant or animal life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be conserved because they are not renewable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocky Mountains- gold, silver, copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minnesota/Michigan- Iron ore </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Natural Resources <ul><li>Conservation and land preservation are important issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining involves large equipment and can damage the land, water, and air systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also, non-renewable and could become depleted </li></ul>
  18. 18. Timber <ul><li>Vital resource </li></ul><ul><li>Forests cover less than 50% of Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 33% of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are renewable; only if companies are responsible and take steps to replant and protect them </li></ul>
  19. 19. Fishing <ul><li>Coastal waters in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheries- places for catching fish and other sea animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Grand Banks- 139,000 sq. miles of area of the southeast coast of Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over-fishing has caused fish stocks to decrease rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture- fish farming; a growing economy </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hurricanes <ul><li>These elements must be present for a hurricane to form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clusters of thunderstorms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water temperature of at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Hurricanes <ul><li>Classifications of Hurricanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Category 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>74-95 m.p.h. 4-5 feet storm surge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>96- 110 m.p.h. 6-8 feet storm surge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>111- 130 m.p.h. 9-12 feet storm surge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>131-155 m.p.h. 13-18 feet storm surge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Above 155 m.p.h. Above 18 feet storm surge </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Climate and Vegetation <ul><li>Climates found in the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Warm and Wet Climate <ul><li>Humid subtropical climate in the Southeast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainy, long muggy summers, mild winters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deciduous forests extend south to Louisiana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most were cleared for farming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Everglades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetlands and swamps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A variety of wildlife and vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hawaii </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical climate and rainforests </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Warm and Dry Climates <ul><li>Rain shadow between the Pacific ranges and Rocky Mountains has a steppe and desert climate </li></ul><ul><li>Death Valley- highest temperature ever recorded, 134 degrees Fahrenheit </li></ul><ul><li>A Mediterranean climate is found in central and southern California </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confined to coastal areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought resistant woodland of twisted, hard-leafed trees </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Northern Climates <ul><li>Most of the U.S. experiences variations in climate and vegetation </li></ul>
  26. 26. Interior Climates <ul><li>Great Plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A humid continental climate with bitterly cold winters and hot summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits from warm, moist winds that blow north from the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Interior Climates <ul><li>Prairies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treeless expanses of grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall ranges from 10 to 30 inches a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prairie grass grows from 6-12 feet (sometimes a ½ inch a day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Super cells- spawn tornadoes (winds can be up to 300 miles per hour) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Interior Climates <ul><li>Prairies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers broke up the densely packed sod to grow crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry weather in the 1930s, winds eroded the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced farm lands to nothing “Dust Bowl” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the 1930s, improved soil and conservation methods have restored the soil </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Interior Climates <ul><li>Steppe Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West of the Great Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional climate that occurs between the dry climates and the humid interior climates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highland Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation is the key classifier in the climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coniferous forests cover the middle elevations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber line- elevation in which trees cannot grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinook- warm dry wind that blows down the east slopes of the Rockies- melting the snow </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Coastal Climates <ul><li>Marine West Coast climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Western winds and ocean currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100 inches of rain a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winters overcast and rainy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summers are cloudless and cool </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. High Latitude Climates <ul><li>Large parts of Alaska and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>High atmospheric pressure spawns cold winds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blizzards- heavy winds and blowing snow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bitter winters and cool summers make it inhabitable </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Alaska <ul><li>Capital: Juneau </li></ul><ul><li>Nickname: The Last Frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Flower: Forget-Me-Not </li></ul><ul><li>Bird: Willow Ptarmigan </li></ul><ul><li>Tree: Sitka Spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Motto: North to the Future </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Statehood: Jan. 3, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 663,661 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Alaska <ul><li>Dog mushing (or dog sled racing) is very popular in Alaska. </li></ul><ul><li>Every year they hold the Iditarod Trail Race , in which sledding teams race from Anchorage straight across the state to Nome. </li></ul><ul><li>The highest mountain in the U.S. is Alaska's Mt. McKinley or Denali. </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. McKinley is 20,320 feet tall. That's about 1,270 football fields stacked end-to-end. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Alaska <ul><li>Russia controlled most of the area that is now Alaska from the late 1700s until 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>It was purchased by U.S. Secretary of State William Seward for $7.2 million, or about 2 cents an acre. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian whalers and fur traders on Kodiak Island established the first settlement in Alaska in 1784. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Alaska <ul><li>Alaska is the biggest state in area </li></ul><ul><li>It is about one-fifth the size of the rest of the United </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring from north to south the state is approximately 1,400 miles long and measuring from east to west it is 2,700 miles wide. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Alaska <ul><li>Alaska's population has a higher proportion of males to females than any other U.S. state </li></ul><ul><li>Only five U.S. states have populations that are more male than female </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. population as a whole, males are outnumbered by a ratio of 100 to 95.8. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Washington <ul><li>Capital: Olympia </li></ul><ul><li>Nickname: The Evergreen State </li></ul><ul><li>Flower: Coast Rhododendron </li></ul><ul><li>Bird Willow Goldfinch </li></ul><ul><li>Tree: Western Hemlock </li></ul><ul><li>Motto: Al-ki - By and By </li></ul><ul><li>Date of statehood: Nov. 11, 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 6,287,759 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Washington <ul><li>Washington is the only state named after a president. </li></ul><ul><li>Washington's Olympic National Park receives over 100 inches of rain per year. Some of its trees are over 300 feet tall. </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Rainier is a dormant volcano. The last time it erupted was in 1969. </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. St. Helens last erupted in 1980. Ash from that eruption fell as far away as Maine. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Washington <ul><li>Nearly 30 percent of Washington's land is owned by the federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>Two large lakes were created by dams on Washington's Columbia River—Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (by the Grand Coulee Dam) and Banks Lake (behind Dry Falls Dam). </li></ul><ul><li>Washington is home to a temperate rainforest, with spruce, cedar and hemlock trees, and abundant ferns and mosses. </li></ul><ul><li>50 percent of the state is covered by forest. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Washington <ul><li>Washington's most important crop is apples—the state produces more than 2 million metric tons of the fruit each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Redmond is home to the Microsoft Corporation, co-founded in 1975 by Bill Gates , a Washington native. </li></ul><ul><li>The world's largest building, a Boeing aircraft manufacturing plant, is located in Everett, Washington. </li></ul><ul><li>Starbucks, the staggeringly popular worldwide coffee chain, got its start in Seattle's Pike Place Market. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Oregon <ul><li>Capital: Salem </li></ul><ul><li>Nickname: The Beaver State </li></ul><ul><li>Flower: Oregon Grape </li></ul><ul><li>Bird: Western Meadowlark </li></ul><ul><li>Tree: Douglas Fir </li></ul><ul><li>Motto: Alis volat propriis - &quot;She flies with her own wings“ </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Statehood: Feb. 14, 1859 </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 3,641,056 </li></ul>
  42. 42. Oregon <ul><li>Every year Portland throws a 24-day long party—the Rose Festival. </li></ul><ul><li>One day about 7,700 years ago, a huge volcano erupted and its top collapsed, forming a lake. </li></ul><ul><li>That beautiful, dark blue lake is now at the center of Oregon's Crater Lake National Park. </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon leads the nation in the production of wood products, hazelnuts and Christmas trees. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Oregon <ul><li>In the mid-1800s, settlers traveled to Oregon with covered wagons via the Oregon Trail. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2,000-mile trail started in Missouri and ended at Oregon City. </li></ul><ul><li>At 1,932 feet, Oregon's Crater Lake is the deepest in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The Seaside Aquarium in Seaside, Oregon, was the first in the world to successfully breed harbor seals. </li></ul><ul><li>The 11,249-foot Mount Hood is Oregon's highest peak and home to 12 glaciers. </li></ul>
  44. 44. California <ul><li>Capital: Sacramento </li></ul><ul><li>Nickname: The Golden State </li></ul><ul><li>Flower: Golden Poppy </li></ul><ul><li>Bird: California Quail </li></ul><ul><li>Tree: California Redwoods </li></ul><ul><li>Motto: Eureka - &quot;I have found it“ </li></ul><ul><li>Date of statehood: Sep. 09, 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 36,132,147 </li></ul>
  45. 45. California <ul><li>California's Sequoia National Park is home to the biggest living things on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The giant Sequoia trees have changed little since the dinosaur days. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequoia National Park contains the largest living tree. Its trunk is 102 feet in circumference. </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Park, on the venerable Santa Monica Pier, re-creates the amusement parks once dotting the ocean areas along the Pacific Coast. </li></ul>
  46. 46. California <ul><li>California produces more than 17 million gallons of wine each year. There are more than 300,000 tons of grapes grown in California annually. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated there are approximately 500,000 detectable seismic tremors in California annually. </li></ul><ul><li>By itself, California has the seventh largest economy in the world </li></ul>
  47. 47. California <ul><li>Death Valley is recognized as the hottest, driest place in the United States. It isn't uncommon for the summer temperatures to reach more than 115 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>California is home to both the highest and lowest points in the continental United States: Mount Whitney (14,494 ft) and Badwater in Death Valley (282 feel below sea level). </li></ul>
  48. 48. Hawaii <ul><li>Capital: Honolulu </li></ul><ul><li>Nickname: The Aloha State </li></ul><ul><li>Flower: Hibiscus </li></ul><ul><li>Bird: Hawaiian Goose </li></ul><ul><li>Tree: Kukui nut tree </li></ul><ul><li>Motto:Ua mau ke ea a ka aina I ka pono - &quot;The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness“ </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Statehood: Aug. 21, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1,275,194 </li></ul>
  49. 49. Hawaii <ul><li>Aloha is a Hawaiian word that means both hello and good-bye! </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaii is the southernmost U.S. state. </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaii is the biggest of the eight Hawaiian Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>It also has one of the world's largest active volcanoes, Mauna Loa. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Hawaii <ul><li>Mt. Waialeale on Kauai Island is the rainiest place on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The average rainfall per year is 476 inches! </li></ul><ul><li>The Kilauea volcano is possibly the world's most active volcano. It is also the home of Pele, Hawaii's volcano goddess. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Hawaii <ul><li>Hawaii is more than 2,300 miles from California, </li></ul><ul><li>3,850 miles from Japan </li></ul><ul><li>4,900 miles from China, making it the most isolated population center on Earth. </li></ul>