Work, force, and energy


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Work, force, and energy

  1. 1. Work, Force, and Energy Thermochemistry
  2. 2. Work, Force, and Energy
  3. 3. Work, Force, and Energy <ul><li>Work is only accomplished when a force moves an object some distance </li></ul><ul><li>Force = a push or a pull </li></ul><ul><li>Work = Force x distance </li></ul><ul><li>Energy = the ability to do work </li></ul><ul><li>The Newton – meter = the joule </li></ul>
  4. 4. Energy from the Sun
  5. 5. Energy from the Sun <ul><li>Plants are the only organisms that can make their own food. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are called autotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plants use sunlight, water, and minerals to make food in a process called Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>The transfer of energy from the Sun, to the plants, to the animals is called a Food Chain . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals are Heterotrophs . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Energy From the Sun <ul><li>The amount of energy food contains is measured in Calories </li></ul><ul><li>A Calorimeter is used to measure the energy in food. </li></ul><ul><li>Stored energy from the Sun is found in the form of Fossil Fuels . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Potential and Kinetic Energy
  8. 8. Potential and Kinetic Energy <ul><li>Potential Energy is stored energy, or energy of position. </li></ul><ul><li>A book lifted to the edge of a table has Potential Energy . </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>A battery has Chemical potential energy. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Seven forms of energy
  10. 10. Seven forms of energy <ul><li>The seven forms of energy are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Seven forms of energy <ul><li>Mechanical energy is the energy of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat energy is related to the movement of the particles that make up matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical energy is the movement of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiant energy includes light, x-rays, and radio waves. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Seven forms of energy <ul><li>During Photosynthesis carbon dioxide, minerals, and water are turned into Glucose (which is a sugar) and oxygen. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Seven forms of energy <ul><li>Nuclear energy has to do with the nucleus. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Law of Conservation of Energy
  15. 15. Law of Conservation of Energy <ul><li>The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed just converted from one form to another. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Law of Conservation of Energy <ul><li>When we lift a ball to a certain point, we have given it Potential energy. </li></ul><ul><li>When we release the ball, the potential energy is converted to Kinetic energy. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Measuring Energy Changes
  18. 18. Measuring Energy Changes <ul><li>Friction is defined as the resistance to relative motion between two bodies in contanct. </li></ul><ul><li>A Newton moved for one meter = one Joule (J) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Measuring Energy Changes <ul><li>The energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius is 4.19 J. </li></ul><ul><li>This is equal to 1 calorie . </li></ul><ul><li>1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie = 1 Calorie </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>1. The energy in food is measured in _____. </li></ul><ul><li>A) watts </li></ul><ul><li>B) newtons </li></ul><ul><li>C) calories </li></ul><ul><li>D) coulombs </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>2. Another word for a joule is a Newton-meter. </li></ul><ul><li>A) true </li></ul><ul><li>B) false </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>3. Energy from the Sun is stored in _____. </li></ul><ul><li>A) nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>B) uranium </li></ul><ul><li>C) fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>D) nuclear fuel </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>4. Which has the greatest amount of potential energy? </li></ul><ul><li>A) a cat standing on a dining room table </li></ul><ul><li>B) a cat laying under a dining room table </li></ul><ul><li>C) a cat chasing a mouse in the kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>D) a cat up a tree </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>5. Mechanical energy is the energy of _____. </li></ul><ul><li>A) motion </li></ul><ul><li>B) sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>C) a battery </li></ul><ul><li>D) the nucleus </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>6. In which form is energy from the light of the Sun? </li></ul><ul><li>A) sound </li></ul><ul><li>B) radiant </li></ul><ul><li>C) chemical </li></ul><ul><li>D) mechanical </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>7. According to the Law of Conservation, energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can, however, be _____. </li></ul><ul><li>A) turned into gravity </li></ul><ul><li>B) stored in generators </li></ul><ul><li>C) converted to another form </li></ul><ul><li>D) totally used up in industry </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>8. Heat energy is associated with _____. </li></ul><ul><li>A) the movement of atoms </li></ul><ul><li>B) dissipation of heat and light </li></ul><ul><li>C) absorption of heat and light </li></ul><ul><li>D) conversion of heat into light </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>9. Potential energy is defined as _____. </li></ul><ul><li>A) energy which is stored </li></ul><ul><li>B) energy released by foods </li></ul><ul><li>C) energy of moving objects </li></ul><ul><li>D) energy released by chemicals </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>10. What is the standard scientific unit (SI unit) for measuring energy or energy change? </li></ul><ul><li>A) BTU </li></ul><ul><li>B) joule </li></ul><ul><li>C) calorie </li></ul><ul><li>D) kilocalorie </li></ul>