Copernican revolution modern

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The final chapter of the Copernican Revolution

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Copernican revolution modern

  1. 1. THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION These Modern Times
  2. 2. Fast Forward…. <ul><li>Over time, the Protestant Reformation lessened the power of the Catholic Church </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fast Forward…. <ul><li>The work of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo and Newton was accepted </li></ul>
  4. 4. Uniting the sciences <ul><li>Newton united physics and astronomy through his laws of motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inertia explains why planets (and others) stay in motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of gravitation explains why things stay together </li></ul></ul>The apple hit me on the head! LOL!
  5. 5. Uniting the sciences <ul><li>Fraunhofer united chemistry and astronomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The spectral lines from sunlight tell what elements are present </li></ul></ul>But I didn’t know what they meant. LOL!
  6. 6. Charles Messier (1730-1817) <ul><li>French astronomer </li></ul><ul><li>Was looking for comets </li></ul><ul><li>Kept being distracted by other fuzzy objects </li></ul><ul><li>Published catalogue of 103 “nebulae” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(later expanded to 110) </li></ul></ul>I only found 13 comets. LOL?
  7. 7. William Herschel (1783-1822) <ul><li>Musician, composer, and astronomer </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered Uranus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First planet discovered since ancient times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First planet discovered with a telescope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discovered that the solar system was moving </li></ul>I can see Uranus! LOL!
  8. 8. William Herschel <ul><li>Discovered that the solar system was moving </li></ul><ul><li>Mapped the visible stars and discovered the galaxy is disk shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered infrared light in sunlight </li></ul>Infrared is hot stuff! LOL!
  9. 9. Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) <ul><li>Discovered many comets and nebulae </li></ul><ul><li>Produced an accurate and usable star catalog </li></ul><ul><li>First woman member of Royal Astronomical Society </li></ul>I looked at more than Uranus! LOL!
  10. 10. Questions <ul><li>Who unified physics and astronomy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who published a catalogue of 110 fuzzy objects? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is William Herschel known for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered : Uranus, disk shaped galaxy, infrared light in sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who was the first woman member of Royal Astronomical Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caroline Herschel </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Urbain Le Verrier (1811-1877) <ul><li>United mathematics and astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Noticed that Uranus had slight deviations in its orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Predicted that another planet was out there </li></ul><ul><li>Neptune was within 1º of his prediction </li></ul><ul><li>First planet discovered using math </li></ul>I got the credit! LOL!
  12. 12. Cincinnati Observatory <ul><li>First observatory built in US </li></ul><ul><li>Founded 1842, first operation in 1845 </li></ul>I’m going to look for Uranus! LOL!
  13. 13. Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) <ul><li>Discovered many comets </li></ul><ul><li>First professor of astronomy at Vassar </li></ul>Don’t mess with my money! LOL!
  14. 14. Photography <ul><li>Biggest advance since the invention of the telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Showed things too faint to see with the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Made more accurate observations than sketches </li></ul>
  15. 15. Questions <ul><li>What did LeVerrier use to discover Neptune? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where was the first observatory founded in the US? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cincinnati </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Maria Mitchell known for discovering? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the biggest advance in astronomy since the telescope? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Henrietta Swann Leavitt (1868-1921) <ul><li>Worked as a computer at Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to determine the magnitudes of stars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used photographs of night sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wasn’t allowed to operate a telescope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discovered more variable stars than anyone else </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cepheid Variables <ul><li>Leavitt plotted the variable period to the absolute brightness </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered direct relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Enabled astronomers to determine distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimmer the star = further away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical relationship </li></ul></ul>WHAT?!?
  18. 18. Size of the universe… <ul><li>By early 20 th century, a debate was raging. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the galaxy the extent of the universe or were there others? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Those blobs.. <ul><li>Astronomers were intrigued by certain nebulae </li></ul><ul><li>Were they dust clouds in the Milky Way or other galaxies? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Edwin Hubble (1889 – 1953) <ul><li>American astronomer </li></ul><ul><li>Observed using the 100 inch Hooker Telescope at Mt. Wilson Observatory </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to settle the issue of the universe’s size </li></ul><ul><li>Studied the Andromeda Nebula </li></ul>100 Inch Hooker? LOL!
  21. 21. Edwin Hubble <ul><li>1923: studying photographic plates of Andromeda </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered a Cepheid Variable! </li></ul><ul><li>Could determine distance! </li></ul><ul><li>Andromeda was a galaxy! </li></ul>
  22. 23. Questions <ul><li>Who discovered the relationship between variable period of stars and their absolute brightness? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henrietta Swann Leavitt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What was the big debate in astronomy at the turn of the 20 th century? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the universe bigger than the Milky Way Galaxy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What did Hubble find that proved Andromeda was another galaxy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cepheid variables </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Not only is the universe bigger… <ul><li>Hubble observed that the galaxies were moving away </li></ul><ul><li>So the universe is not only bigger than thought, it’s getting bigger </li></ul>
  24. 25. Run that tape backwards… <ul><li>If the universe is expanding, it used to be a LOT smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Universe believed to have started with Big Bang </li></ul>
  25. 26. Albert Einstein (1879-1955) <ul><li>1905: Special Relativity </li></ul><ul><li>Time is not constant, only the speed of light is constant </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared: E=mc 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Explains how stars work </li></ul>It’s all relative. LOL!
  26. 27. Albert Einstein <ul><li>1916: General Relativity </li></ul><ul><li>Space + time = spacetime </li></ul><ul><li>Mass warps spacetime </li></ul><ul><li>The warping of spacetime is gravity </li></ul>
  27. 28. Questions <ul><li>What else did Hubble discover about the universe? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is expanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What did Einstein's theory of Special Relativity explain? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How stars work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What did Einstein’s theory of General Relativity say warped spacetime? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What did Einstein’s theory of General Relativity say could be bent by warped spacetime? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Proving general relativity <ul><li>Einstein predicted that the Sun’s gravity would bend the light of stars behind it </li></ul><ul><li>During an eclipse would stars would appear out of place </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed by Eddington in 1919 </li></ul>
  29. 30. Stephen Hawking (1942-) <ul><li>Theoretical Physicist </li></ul><ul><li>Theories about black holes before they were proven to exist </li></ul><ul><li>Theories about the early universe </li></ul><ul><li>United astronomy with theoretical physics </li></ul>Nobody knows my real voice. LOL!
  30. 31. The digital revolution <ul><li>Computers are the biggest contribution to astronomy since photography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling, image manipulation, telescope control etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital photography gives better imaging than ever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back to amateurs </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. New age of telescopes <ul><li>Telescopes now use all bands of the spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Telescopes can adapt to focus more precisely </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger telescopes than ever! </li></ul>
  32. 33. New age of telescopes <ul><li>NASA’s Great Observatories Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compton: Gamma Ray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chandra: X-Ray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubble: Visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spitzer: Infrared </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. What next? <ul><li>The more we learn, the more questions we have. </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution continues </li></ul><ul><li>Viva la revolucion! </li></ul>
  34. 35. Questions <ul><li>How was General Relativity proved? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light from stars behind the Sun was seen to have moved during an eclipse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who united astronomy and theoretical physics? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Hawking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s the biggest advancement in astronomy since photography? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul></ul>

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