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THE MODERN VIEW John Coltrane –  Stairway to the Stars
A little review <ul><li>Geocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Earth centered system-  </li></ul><ul>...
Mars <ul><li>shows both prograde and retrograde motion </li></ul><ul><li>July 1 </li></ul><ul><li>August 1 </li></ul><ul><...
Ptolemaic System
Ptolemaic System
Ptolemaic system in trouble <ul><li>After 1400 years (late 16 th  century) </li></ul><ul><li>System began to seem clumsy <...
The historical context <ul><li>Columbus had explored the Americas (1492) </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus thought the world was ...
The historical context <ul><li>Europe was emerging from the Dark Ages into the Renaissance </li></ul>
The historical context <ul><li>Modern calendar adopted in 1582 </li></ul>
The historical context <ul><li>By the 1500s… </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Catholic Church had been the biggest power in Eur...
The historical context <ul><li>Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation (1517) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry  VIII of Englan...
The historical context <ul><li>The Church’s power was under attack </li></ul>
Martin Luther
Astronomy and the Early Church <ul><li>Dates of holidays set by equinoxes and solstices </li></ul><ul><li>The calendar was...
Questions: <ul><li>What is a system that orbits the Earth? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geocentric </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is...
Questions: <ul><li>Why was the early church so interested in astronomy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed an accurate determina...
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) <ul><li>Wanted an easier system to use than Ptolemy’s </li></ul><ul><li>Realized that a he...
Copernicus
Copernicus’ Ideas (simplified) <ul><li>Earth is not at the center of everything </li></ul><ul><li>All the planets revolve ...
Copernicus’ Ideas (simplified) <ul><li>Any apparent motion we see is the result of Earth’s rotation </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
The Copernican Model SUN SUN PERFECTLY CIRCULAR ORBITS
Copernicus’ motivation <ul><li>a note at the beginning of the book: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>theory contained therein was not...
Copernicus’ System <ul><li>His system was only slightly less complicated than Ptolemy’s </li></ul><ul><li>Could not explai...
Copernicus’ System <ul><li>Not the revolution, but the spark </li></ul><ul><li>First to create a complete and general syst...
The Church’s reaction <ul><li>Ignored at first as purely theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>Objected to the removal of the Eart...
Copernicus Questions <ul><li>What are the contributions to astronomy made by Copernicus? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First to ap...
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Modern view copernicus

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Modern view copernicus

  1. 1. THE MODERN VIEW John Coltrane – Stairway to the Stars
  2. 2. A little review <ul><li>Geocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Earth centered system- </li></ul><ul><li>Sun centered system – </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mars <ul><li>shows both prograde and retrograde motion </li></ul><ul><li>July 1 </li></ul><ul><li>August 1 </li></ul><ul><li>September 1 </li></ul><ul><li>October 1 </li></ul><ul><li>November 1 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ptolemaic System
  5. 5. Ptolemaic System
  6. 6. Ptolemaic system in trouble <ul><li>After 1400 years (late 16 th century) </li></ul><ul><li>System began to seem clumsy </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing levels of complexity to match observations </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Better time keeping </li></ul><ul><li>More and more epicycles needed </li></ul>
  7. 7. The historical context <ul><li>Columbus had explored the Americas (1492) </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus thought the world was smaller </li></ul><ul><li>It was the size Eristarchus had estimated </li></ul>
  8. 8. The historical context <ul><li>Europe was emerging from the Dark Ages into the Renaissance </li></ul>
  9. 9. The historical context <ul><li>Modern calendar adopted in 1582 </li></ul>
  10. 10. The historical context <ul><li>By the 1500s… </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Catholic Church had been the biggest power in Europe for about 1200 years </li></ul>
  11. 11. The historical context <ul><li>Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation (1517) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII of England places himself as head of Church in England (1534) </li></ul>
  12. 12. The historical context <ul><li>The Church’s power was under attack </li></ul>
  13. 13. Martin Luther
  14. 14. Astronomy and the Early Church <ul><li>Dates of holidays set by equinoxes and solstices </li></ul><ul><li>The calendar was wrong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date of vernal equinox was slipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easter was coming at the wrong time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Needed more precise determinations of dates </li></ul>Easter?? At the wrong time ?? This will not do!
  15. 15. Questions: <ul><li>What is a system that orbits the Earth? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geocentric </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is a system that orbits the Sun? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heliocentric </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In what direction do the planets usually move? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East to west </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In what direction does a planet move when it is in retrograde motion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West to east </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Questions: <ul><li>Why was the early church so interested in astronomy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed an accurate determination of holidays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates were slipping </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) <ul><li>Wanted an easier system to use than Ptolemy’s </li></ul><ul><li>Realized that a heliocentric system system made calculations/predictions much easier </li></ul><ul><li>Published in 1543, just before his death </li></ul>
  18. 18. Copernicus
  19. 19. Copernicus’ Ideas (simplified) <ul><li>Earth is not at the center of everything </li></ul><ul><li>All the planets revolve around the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>The stars are much further away from Earth than the Sun </li></ul>
  20. 20. Copernicus’ Ideas (simplified) <ul><li>Any apparent motion we see is the result of Earth’s rotation </li></ul><ul><li>The annual motion of the Sun (solstices, equinoxes) is actually because of Earth’s orbit of the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>The prograde or retrograde motion of the planets is because of Earth’s motion </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Copernican Model SUN SUN PERFECTLY CIRCULAR ORBITS
  22. 22. Copernicus’ motivation <ul><li>a note at the beginning of the book: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>theory contained therein was not meant to actually model reality, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>merely an easier mathematical formulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>equally spaced planets in circular orbits would represent harmony in the universe </li></ul>
  23. 23. Copernicus’ System <ul><li>His system was only slightly less complicated than Ptolemy’s </li></ul><ul><li>Could not explain changes in the brightness of Venus </li></ul>
  24. 24. Copernicus’ System <ul><li>Not the revolution, but the spark </li></ul><ul><li>First to create a complete and general system, combining mathematics, physics, and astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Not yet understood: the further the planet was from the Sun, the longer it takes to orbit </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Church’s reaction <ul><li>Ignored at first as purely theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>Objected to the removal of the Earth from the center of the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Correction of an established theory proved that scientific investigation was a threat to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Copernicus’ book was banned in 1616 </li></ul>Don’t be bringing that noise around here!
  26. 26. Copernicus Questions <ul><li>What are the contributions to astronomy made by Copernicus? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First to apply physics and mathematics to astronomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reawakened heliocentric idea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why did Copernicus come up with his theory? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was more pleasing to his mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made more sense </li></ul></ul>

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