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- 1. Energy: Forms and Changes
- 2. Nature of Energy <ul><li>Energy is all around you! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can hear energy as sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can see energy as light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And you can feel it as wind. </li></ul></ul>
- 3. Nature of Energy <ul><li>You use energy when you: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hit a softball. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lift your book bag. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compress a spring. </li></ul></ul>
- 4. Nature of Energy <ul><li>Living organisms need energy for growth and movement. </li></ul>SUN
- 5. Nature of Energy <ul><li>Energy is involved when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a bird flies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a bomb explodes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rain falls from the sky. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electricity flows in a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wire. </li></ul></ul>
- 6. Nature of Energy <ul><li>What is energy that it can be involved in so many different activities? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy can be defined as the ability to do work . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If an object or organism does work (exerts a force over a distance to move an object) the object or organism uses energy. </li></ul></ul>
- 7. Nature of Energy <ul><li>Because of the direct connection between energy and work, energy is measured in the same unit as work: joules (J). </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to using energy to do work, objects gain energy because work is being done on them. </li></ul>
- 10. States of Energy <ul><li>The most common energy conversion is the conversion between potential and kinetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>All forms of energy can be in either of two states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic </li></ul></ul>
- 11. States of Energy: Kinetic and Potential Energy <ul><li>Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Energy is stored energy . </li></ul>
- 12. http://teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=127812&title=Story_of_Kinetic_and_Potential_Energy
- 13. <ul><li>Potential Energy is stored energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored chemically in fuel, the nucleus of atom, and in foods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or stored because of the work done on it: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stretching a rubber band. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winding a watch. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulling back on a bow’s arrow. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting a brick high in the air. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 14. Elastic Potential Energy <ul><li>Energy that is stored due to being stretched or compressed is called elastic potential energy. </li></ul>
- 15. Kinetic Energy <ul><li>The energy of motion is called kinetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>The faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has. </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the mass of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic energy depends on both mass and velocity. </li></ul>
- 16. Kinetic Energy <ul><li>K.E. = mass x velocity 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>What has a greater affect on kinetic energy, mass or velocity? Why ? </li></ul>
- 17. Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion Roller coasters work because of the energy that is built into the system. Initially, the cars are pulled mechanically up the tallest hill, giving them a great deal of potential energy. From that point, the conversion between potential and kinetic energy powers the cars throughout the entire ride.
- 18. Kinetic vs. Potential Energy At the point of maximum potential energy, the car has minimum kinetic energy.
- 19. Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversions <ul><li>As a basketball player throws the ball into the air, various energy conversions take place. </li></ul>
- 20. Ball slows down Ball speeds up
- 21. Bellwork: Use the illustration below to answer the questions. 1. ___ Which letter in the diagram represents the place where the cars on the roller coaster would have the most potential energy? 2. ___ Which letter represents the place where the cars would have the least kinetic energy? 3. ___ Where in the diagram would the cars be moving with the greatest speed?
- 22. So…… Why do you think that the first hill on the roller coaster must be the tallest? (Explain your answer in terms of kinetic and potential energy.)
- 23. Objective: You will calculate potential energy and kinetic energy using their respective formulas.
- 25. Objective: You will identify the five main forms of energy and explain the energy conversions taking place in different scenarios.
- 26. Forms of Energy <ul><li>The five main forms of energy are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul>
- 27. Mechanical Energy <ul><li>When work is done to an object, it acquires energy. It is the total energy of motion and position in an object. </li></ul>Mechanical energy = P.E. + K.E.
- 28. Mechanical Energy <ul><li>When you kick a football, this is mechanical energy that makes the football move. </li></ul>
- 29. Mechanical Energy When you throw a bowling ball, you give it energy. When that bowling ball hits the pins, some of the energy is transferred to the pins (transfer of momentum).
- 30. Heat Energy <ul><li>The internal motion of the atoms is called heat energy, because moving particles produce heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat energy can be produced by friction. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat energy causes changes in temperature and phase of any form of matter. </li></ul>
- 31. Physical state: Melting ice at 0° C Bonds between molecules: Bonds in regular structure breaking (requires heat energy)
- 32. Physical state: Liquid water at 0° C Bonds between molecules: Many bonds forming and breaking randomly
- 33. Physical state: Liquid water at 20 ° C Bonds between molecules: Many bonds forming and breaking randomly
- 34. Physical state: Liquid water at 100 ° C Bonds between molecules: Many bonds forming and breaking randomly
- 35. Physical state: Boiling water at 100° C Bonds between molecules: Remaining bonds are breaking (requires heat energy)
- 36. Physical state: Water vapor at 100° C Bonds between molecules: None
- 37. Chemical Energy <ul><li>Chemical energy is required to bond atoms together. </li></ul><ul><li>And when bonds are broken, energy is released. </li></ul>
- 38. Where is the energy stored in these hydrocarbons? THE BONDS
- 39. Chemical Energy <ul><li>Fuel and food are forms of stored chemical energy. </li></ul>
- 40. Electromagnetic Energy <ul><li>Power lines carry electromagnetic energy into your home in the form of electricity. </li></ul>
- 41. Electromagnetic Energy <ul><li>Light is a form of electromagnetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Each color of light ( R O Y G B V ) represents a different amount of electromagnetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic energy is also carried by X-rays, radio waves, and laser light. </li></ul>
- 42. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy. </li></ul>
- 43. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>When the nucleus splits ( fission ), nuclear energy is released in the form of heat energy and light energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear energy is also released when nuclei collide at high speeds and join ( fuse ). </li></ul>
- 44. Nuclear Energy The sun’s energy is produced from a nuclear fusion reaction in which hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei.
- 45. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy. </li></ul>Millstone Power Plant
- 46. Chernobyl Power Plant in Russia
- 47. Chernobyl Power Plant after explosion on April 26, 1986 Thyroid cancer
- 48. Question: Where do we put it?
- 49. Energy Conversion <ul><li>Energy can be changed from one form to another. Changes in the form of energy are called energy conversions. </li></ul>
- 50. Energy conversions <ul><li>All forms of energy can be converted into other forms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sun’s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green plants convert the sun’s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy). </li></ul></ul>
- 51. Other energy conversions <ul><ul><li>In an electric motor, electromagnetic energy is converted to mechanical energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a battery, chemical energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mechanical energy of a waterfall is converted to electrical energy in a generator. </li></ul></ul>
- 52. Energy Conversions <ul><li>In an automobile engine, fuel is burned to convert chemical energy into heat energy. The heat energy is then changed into mechanical energy. </li></ul>
- 53. Chemical Heat Mechanical
- 54. Gravitational Potential Energy <ul><li>Potential energy that is dependent on height is called gravitational potential energy. </li></ul>
- 55. Gravitational Potential Energy <ul><li>A waterfall, a suspension bridge, and a falling snowflake all have gravitational potential energy. </li></ul>
- 56. Gravitational Potential Energy <ul><li>If you stand on a 3-meter diving board, you have 3 times the G.P.E, than you had on a 1-meter diving board. </li></ul>
- 57. 1 3 2 4
- 58. The flower pot on the right is at a higher gravitational potential energy than the one on the left because it is at a higher position. So, the potential energy that each pot has is a function of its vertical position.
- 59. Gravitational Potential Energy <ul><li>“ The bigger they are the harder they fall” is not just a saying. It’s true. Objects with more mass have greater G.P.E. </li></ul><ul><li>The formula to find G.P.E. is </li></ul><ul><li>G.P.E. = Mass X Height . </li></ul>
- 61. The Law of Conservation of Energy <ul><li>Energy can be neither created nor destroyed by ordinary means. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It can only be converted from one form to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If energy seems to disappear, then scientists look for it – leading to many important discoveries. </li></ul></ul>
- 62. Law of Conservation of Energy <ul><li>In 1905, Albert Einstein said that mass and energy can be converted into each other. </li></ul><ul><li>He showed that if matter </li></ul><ul><li>is destroyed, energy is </li></ul><ul><li>created, and if energy </li></ul><ul><li>is destroyed mass is </li></ul><ul><li>created. </li></ul><ul><li>E = MC 2 </li></ul>
- 63. http://www.funderstanding.com/coaster Planning your “rollercoaster”…..
- 64. Vocabulary Words <ul><li>energy </li></ul><ul><li>mechanical energy </li></ul><ul><li>heat energy </li></ul><ul><li>chemical energy </li></ul><ul><li>electromagnetic energy </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear energy </li></ul><ul><li>kinetic energy </li></ul><ul><li>potential energy </li></ul><ul><li>gravitational potential energy </li></ul><ul><li>energy conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Conservation of Energy </li></ul>

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