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Energy forms and_changes


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Energy forms and_changes

  1. 1. Energy: Forms and Changes
  2. 2. Nature of Energy <ul><li>Energy is all around you! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can hear energy as sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can see energy as light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And you can feel it as wind. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nature of Energy <ul><li>You use energy when you: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hit a softball. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lift your book bag. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compress a spring. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Nature of Energy <ul><li>Living organisms need energy for growth and movement. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nature of Energy <ul><li>Energy is involved when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a bird flies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a bomb explodes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rain falls from the sky. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electricity flows in a wire. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nature of Energy <ul><li>What is energy that it can be involved in so many different activities? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy can be defined as the ability to do work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If an object or organism does work (exerts a force over a distance to move an object) the object or organism uses energy. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Nature of Energy <ul><li>Because of the direct connection between energy and work, energy is measured in the same unit as work: joules (J). </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to using energy to do work, objects gain energy because work is being done on them. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Forms of Energy <ul><li>The five main forms of energy are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Heat Energy <ul><li>The internal motion of the atoms is called heat energy, because moving particles produce heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat energy can be produced by friction. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat energy causes changes in temperature and phase of any form of matter. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Endo/Exo – thermic energy <ul><li>An exothermic process is one that gives off heat. This heat is transferred to the surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>(given off) </li></ul><ul><li>An endothermic process is one in which heat has to be supplied to the system from the surroundings (absorbed) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chemical Energy <ul><li>Chemical Energy is required to bond atoms together. </li></ul><ul><li>And when bonds are broken, energy is released. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Chemical Energy <ul><li>Fuel and food are forms of stored chemical energy . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Electromagnetic Energy <ul><li>Power lines carry electromagnetic energy into your home in the form of electricity. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Electromagnetic Energy <ul><li>Light is a form of electromagnetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Each color of light (Roy G Bv) represents a different amount of electromagnetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Energy is also carried by X-rays, radio waves, and laser light. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>When the nucleus splits (fission), nuclear energy is released in the form of heat energy and light energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear energy is also released when nuclei collide at high speeds and join (fuse). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nuclear Energy The sun’s energy is produced from a nuclear fusion reaction in which hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei.
  18. 18. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy. </li></ul>Most of us live within 10 miles of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant which converts nuclear energy into electromagnetic energy.
  19. 19. Mechanical Energy <ul><li>When work is done to an object, it acquires energy. The energy it acquires is known as mechanical energy. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mechanical Energy <ul><li>When you kick a football, you give mechancal energy to the football to make it move. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Mechanical Energy When you throw a bowling ball, you give it energy. When that bowling ball hits the pins, some of the energy is transferred to the pins (transfer of momentum).
  22. 22. Energy Conversion <ul><li>Energy can be changed from one form to another. Changes in the form of energy are called energy conversions. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Energy conversions <ul><li>All forms of energy can be converted into other forms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sun’s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green plants convert the sun’s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Other energy conversions <ul><ul><li>In an electric motor, electromagnetic energy is converted to mechanical energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a battery, chemical energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mechanical energy of a waterfall is converted to electrical energy in a generator. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Energy Conversions <ul><li>In an automobile engine, fuel is burned to convert chemical energy into heat energy. The heat energy is then changed into mechanical energy. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Chemical  Heat  Mechanical
  27. 27. States of Energy <ul><li>The most common energy conversion is the conversion between potential and kinetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>All forms of energy can be in either of two states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. States of Energy: Kinetic and Potential Energy <ul><li>Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Energy is stored energy . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Kinetic Energy <ul><li>The energy of motion is called kinetic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>The faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has. </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the mass of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic energy depends on both mass and velocity. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Kinetic Energy <ul><li>K.E. = mass x velocity </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>What has a greater affect of kinetic energy, mass or velocity? Why? </li></ul>2
  31. 31. Potential Energy <ul><li>Potential Energy is stored energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored chemically in fuel, the nucleus of atom, and in foods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or stored because of the work done on it: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stretching a rubber band. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winding a watch. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulling back on a bow’s arrow. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting a brick high in the air. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Gravitational Potential Energy <ul><li>Potential energy that is dependent on height is called gravitational potential energy. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Potential Energy <ul><li>Energy that is stored due to being stretched or compressed is called elastic potential energy. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Gravitational Potential Energy <ul><li>A waterfall, a suspension bridge, and a falling snowflake all have gravitational potential energy. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Gravitational Potential Energy <ul><li>If you stand on a 3-meter diving board, you have 3 times the G.P.E, than you had on a 1-meter diving board. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Gravitational Potential Energy <ul><li>“The bigger they are the harder they fall” is not just a saying. It’s true. Objects with more mass have greater G.P.E. </li></ul><ul><li>The formula to find G.P.E. is </li></ul><ul><li>G.P.E. = Weight X Height. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion Roller coasters work because of the energy that is built into the system. Initially, the cars are pulled mechanically up the tallest hill, giving them a great deal of potential energy. From that point, the conversion between potential and kinetic energy powers the cars throughout the entire ride.
  38. 38. Kinetic vs. Potential Energy At the point of maximum potential energy, the car has minimum kinetic energy.
  39. 39. Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversions <ul><li>As a basketball player throws the ball into the air, various energy conversions take place. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Ball slows down Ball speeds up
  41. 41. The Law of Conservation of Energy <ul><li>Energy can be neither created nor destroyed by ordinary means. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It can only be converted from one form to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If energy seems to disappear, then scientists look for it – leading to many important discoveries. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Law of Conservation of Energy <ul><li>In 1905, Albert Einstein said that mass and energy can be converted into each other. </li></ul><ul><li>He showed that if matter is destroyed, energy is created, and if energy is destroyed mass is created. 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E = MC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Convection <ul><li>Convection is the transfer of heat by the actual movement of the warmed matter. Heat leaves the coffee cup as the currents of steam and air rise. Convection is the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by movement of currents . (It can also happen is some solids, like sand.) The heat moves with the fluid. Consider this: convection is responsible for making macaroni rise and fall in a pot of heated water. The warmer portions of the water are less dense and therefore, they rise. Meanwhile, the cooler portions of the water fall because they are denser. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Radiation <ul><li>Radiation: Electromagnetic waves that directly transport ENERGY through space . Sunlight is a form of radiation that is radiated through space to our planet without the aid of fluids or solids. The energy travels through nothingness! Just think of it! The sun transfers heat through 93 million miles of space. Because there are no solids (like a huge spoon) touching the sun and our planet, conduction is not responsible for bringing heat to Earth. Since there are no fluids (like air and water) in space, convection is not responsible for transferring the heat. Thus, radiation brings heat to our planet . </li></ul>
  45. 45. Conduction <ul><li>Conduction is the transfer of energy through matter from particle to particle. It is the transfer and distribution of heat energy from atom to atom within a substance . For example, a spoon in a cup of hot soup becomes warmer because the heat from the soup is conducted along the spoon. Conduction is most effective in solids-but it can happen in fluids. Fun fact: Have you ever noticed that metals tend to feel cold? Believe it or not, they are not colder! They only feel colder because they conduct heat away from your hand. You perceive the heat that is leaving your hand as cold. </li></ul>