International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)www.ijsea.com ...
International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)A stochastic a...
International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)www.ijsea.com ...
International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)www.ijsea.com ...
International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)www.ijsea.com ...
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Improvement In LEACH Protocol By Electing Master Cluster Heads To Enhance The Network Lifetime In WSN

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In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes play the most prominent role. These sensor nodes are mainly un-chargeable, so it
raises an issue regarding lifetime of the network. Mainly sensor nodes collect data and transmit it to the Base Station. So, most of the
energy is consumed in the communication process between sensor nodes and the Base Station. In this paper, we present an
improvement on LEACH protocol to enhance the network lifetime. Our goal is to reduce the transmissions between cluster heads and
the sink node. We will choose optimum number of Master Cluster Heads from variation cluster heads present in the network. The
simulation results show that our proposed algorithm enhances the network lifetime as compare to the LEACH protocol.

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Improvement In LEACH Protocol By Electing Master Cluster Heads To Enhance The Network Lifetime In WSN

  1. 1. International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)www.ijsea.com 110Improvement In LEACH Protocol By Electing MasterCluster Heads To Enhance The Network Lifetime In WSNKanwalnainpreet KaurLovely Professional UniversityPunjab, IndiaDeepika SharmaLovely Professional UniversityPunjab, IndiaAbstract: In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes play the most prominent role. These sensor nodes are mainly un-chargeable, so itraises an issue regarding lifetime of the network. Mainly sensor nodes collect data and transmit it to the Base Station. So, most of theenergy is consumed in the communication process between sensor nodes and the Base Station. In this paper, we present animprovement on LEACH protocol to enhance the network lifetime. Our goal is to reduce the transmissions between cluster heads andthe sink node. We will choose optimum number of Master Cluster Heads from variation cluster heads present in the network. Thesimulation results show that our proposed algorithm enhances the network lifetime as compare to the LEACH protocol.Keywords: Cluster, Cluster-head, Network Lifetime, sink node.1. INTRODUCTIONIn recent years, wireless sensor network (WSN) has achieveda great attention of the researchers. The network comprises ofnumber of sensor nodes which are deployed according torequired application. Sensor nodes mainly perform the threebasic tasks namely, sensing, processing and transmitting.There are numerous applications of WSNs exists in number ofdirections which includes environmental applications, medicalmonitoring, security for homes, surveillance, inventorymanagement industrial and manufacturing automation,process control, , distributed robotics, etc. Mainly the wirelesssensor network is situated at any unreachable track. Once thesensor network has been established at particular location itmay not be changed easily. The energy of sensor nodes isgoing to absorb when it collects and send the information. Sothe energy consumption by the sensor network has becomethe most attractive issue for the researchers [1].All the sensor nodes are allowed to communicate through awireless medium. Figure 1. describes the architecture of asenor node. The wireless medium may either of radiofrequencies, infrared or any other medium, of course, havingno wired connection.Figure 1. Architecture of sensor nodeThese nodes are deployed in a random fashion and they cancommunicate among themselves to make an ad-hoc network.WSN gives flexibility of adding nodes and removing thenodes as required. But this gives rise to many drastic changesto deal with in the network topology such as updating thepath, or the network tree, etc. In a WSN the node that gathersthe information refers to sink. The sink may be connected tothe outside world through internet where the information canbe utilized within time constraints [2].The numbers of clustering algorithms have been proposed toimprove the lifetime of the sensor network. In clustering, thesensor network is divided into clusters and then the one nodefrom each cluster is selected as the cluster head. All the dataaggregation activity has been done within the cluster and thencluster head use to send the information of a particular clusterto the BS which is also known as sink node. Clusteringprovides a reduction of redundancy and improvement over thelifetime of the wireless sensor network. LEACH is consideredto be the most general clustering algorithm. In our proposedalgorithm, an improvement over LEACH has been introduced.The simulation results show the improvement in the lifetimeof the sensor network.This paper is organized in the following manner. Section 2 isabout literature survey regarding the variation clusteringprotocols of wireless sensor network. Section 3 will describesthe block diagram representation of previous and newtechnique. Section 4 contains simulation results and thecomparison of the new technique with the LEACH protocol.Finally, section 5 illustrates the conclusion for the work donefor improving the lifetime of the network.2. LITERATURE SURVEYIn this section, we present a brief study of some commonclustering routing protocols for WSNs.2.1 Low Energy Adaptive ClusteringHierarchy Protocol for WSNs (LEACH)LEACH [3] is known as a distributed hierarchical protocol. Itprovides the aggregation for data in wireless sensor networksby selection of Cluster heads in random manner. This protocolfirst judges the strength of the received message or signal andthen formation of cluster takes place. In this Cluster Headnodes are taken as routers to reach the sink node. Every non-Cluster Head node sends its data to their CHs. Before sensingreceived information to sink, CHs aggregate the information.
  2. 2. International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)A stochastic algorithm is referred in each round by everysingle sensor node to determine whether it can be a clusterhead for that particular round or may not act as a cluster headfor that round. All normal nodes of the cluster communicatewith CH in TDMA fashion which is scheduled by CH.LEACH clustering is shown in Figure 2.Figure 2. LEACH clusteringThe operation of LEACH is conducted in numerous rounds,and each round is separated into two phases known as the set-up phase and the steady-state phase. In the set-up phase thevarious clusters of sensor network are organized, while in thesteady-state phase information is delivered to the sink node.During the set-up phase, each sensor node decides whether ornot to act as a cluster head for that particular round. Thisdecision is made by the sensor node by randomly selecting anumber between 0 and 1. A particular node becomes a clusterhead for the current round if the number is less than the givenfollowing threshold value:T(n) = if n є G0 otherwisewhere P denotes desired percentage of cluster heads, r forcurrent round, and G represents set of nodes that have notbeen elected CHs in the last 1/P rounds. When a sensor nodeis chosen as CH successfully, then it broadcasts anadvertisement text to the other nodes of the network. Bymeasuring the strength of received signal of the advertisementtext, other sensor nodes decide to which cluster it will connectfor this particular round and send a membership message to itsCH.Another phase is steady-state phase. During this phase thenodes sense and transmit data to the cluster heads. The CHsaggregate the information/data arriving from sensor nodes thatbelong to the respective cluster, and send aggregatedinformation to the sink node directly.2.2 Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, DistributedClustering Approach (HEED)HEED [4] is also a distributed clustering algorithm used forWireless Sensor Networks. Every sensor node has someamount of energy associated with it. This energy of nodesreduces during reception and transmission of data. It alsoaccess query requests coming from the Base Station. HEEDprotocol follows to circulate the role of server among allnodes of the cluster so that a balance will be maintainedbetween residual energy of all nodes of the cluster. Hence,remaining energy of cluster head would not drop to minimumleading to less node failures due to energy depletion in thenetwork.2.3 Power-Efficient Gathering in SensorInformation Systems (PEGASIS)In this protocol [5], some chains consisting of differentsensor nodes have been formed. Every node sends its data tothe neighbor sensor node and most appropriate node isselected to transmit the data to the sink node. PEGASIS doesnot follow the concept of cluster formation and it prefer todecide or choose only one node from the chain to transmit tothe sink node instead of using multiple sensor nodes present inthe network. When a sensor node fails due to low batterybackup, again the chain is made using the same previousgreedy approach.2.4 LEACH-C protocolLEACH-C [3] is a centralized clustering algorithm in whichsink node has the power to select the clusters based upon theannealing algorithm to find k optimal number of clusters.Here the Base Station selects the cluster heads for a particularround. The protocol guarantees an optimum number ofclusters but it has a drawback that each sensor node providesinformation about its current position and remaining energy tothe sink node during the set up phase which results in an extrawastage or overhead in the network.2.5 LEACH-BLEACH-B [6] is an improvement in Leach protocol forwireless senor network. In order to minimize the energyconsumption and to prolong the life span of the sensornetwork, the protocol needs to ensure that the partition ofcluster should be balance and uniform. To achieve this goal,the number of CHs needs to be dominated, and the networkneeds an optimal CHs amount. At each round, after firstselection of cluster head according to LEACH protocol, asecond selection is introduced to modify the number of clusterhead in consideration of node’s residual energy.3. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PREVIOUSAND PROPOSED TECHNIQUE3.1 Previous technique- LEACHFigure 3. illustrates the basic block diagram of LEACHalgorithm. It gives a representation of step by step operationof LEACH. The working initiates by deployment of senornodes in a random manner in network. A traditional clusteringscheme is applied to divide the sensor network into clusters.Then cluster heads are chosen randomly and transmit the datato Base station. This process continuous in every round untilthe whole sensor nodes die or Base station commands forstopping the process.
  3. 3. International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)www.ijsea.com 112Figure 3. Basic Block Diagram for LEACH3.2 New Proposed TechniqueFigure 4. shows the basic block diagram for proposedtechnique. Every block marks the difference between theprevious and new technique. Here, instead of transmissionbetween every CH and sink node, it follows the technique ofelecting the Master Cluster Head for transmission of datafrom different cluster heads to the Base Station.Figure 4.Basic Block Diagram for Proposed TechniqueThus our technique consists of following main stages:• Random deployment of the nodes• Formation of clusters using Gridding• Selection of cluster heads and the intra-clustercommunication has been made.• Selection of Master Cluster Head from differentcluster heads to minimize transmission processbetween CHs and sink node.4. Simulation And AnalysisIn this section, we perform simulations to analyze andevaluate the performance of the proposed technique. Heresimulation is done on MATLAB. The simulation resultsdepict that our proposed technique has better results in termsof the network lifetime. We get improvement in the lifetimeof the network and with this more amount of information isgathered at the Base Station. To verify the improvedalgorithm proposed, we will compare the results withLEACH.4.1 Simulation SetupThe different parameters which are used in our research hasbeen mentioned in the Table I. We carried out our experimentusing a simulation area of 100m * 100m. The initial energyprovided to every node is 0.5J. Every node use to send a datapacket of 4000 bits.TABLE I. Different values used during simulationDescription Symbol ValueThe Sensing area M×M 100m×100mNumber of nodes N 100The initial node energy Einitial 0.5JEnergy consumed bythe amplifier to transmitat a short distance Εfs10pJ/bit/m2Energy consumed bythe amplifier to transmitat a longer distance Εamp 0.0013pJ/bit/m4Energy consumed in theelectronics circuit totransmit or receive thesignalEelec 50pJ/bitData packet k 4000 bitsControl packet Lctrl 100 bitsData aggregationnenergyEda 5pJ/bit/report4.2 Deployment of sensor nodes and sinkHere 100 sensor nodes are randomly deployed in the sensorfield. The location of sink is (50, 140).4.3 Performance metricsThere are number of parameters which affect the performanceof the WSNs. The initial energy provided to each node is
  4. 4. International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)www.ijsea.com 1130.5J.This paper selects the two metrics that first node dies(FND), half of nodes die (HND) to evaluate the networkperformances. The network lifetime is depending on thenumber of alive nodes present. As the less number of nodesdie, there will higher efficiency of using energy.4.4 Election of Master Cluster headsIn this paper communication is take place between mastercluster heads and sink node instead of cluster heads and sinknode. Figure 5. shows simulation result of communicationaccording to our technique.Figure 5. Master Cluster Head TechniqueEvery cluster head first selects its master cluster head andsend its data to that particular node. These main nodes acceptthe data packets from cluster heads and then send aggregateddata packets to the sink node. We can demonstrate from thefigure that only one transmission is taking place. As we knowthat in sensor network most of the energy is consumed duringthe long way communication. So our main motive is to reducethe long way communication between cluster heads and thesink node. Our technique gives great improvement in thelifetime of the network.4.5 Result for lifetime of the networkIn Figure 6, the number of rounds is given on x-coordinateand y-coordinate represents for the number of dead nodespresent per round. We calculated the FND and HND roundsfor our technique. It can be demonstrate from the averageresults that first node dies around 1659 rounds and half nodesdie at around 2226 rounds. Here we haven’t taken externalfactors into consideration. The original LEACH algorithmbegan to its first node death at 1029th round and halfnode died in 1575th round. So above results mark a greatdifference in our proposed technique as compare to LEACH.Figure 6. Network Lifetime of Proposed TechniqueTABLE II. FND and HND for LEACH and ProposedTechniqueTechniques FND HNDLEACH 1029 1575ProposedTechnique1659 2226TABLE II shows the comparison of FND and HND betweenLEACH and new technique. If we define network lifetime asper FND and HND rounds, then new technique givesimproved results as compare to LEACH.5. CONCLUSIONThe energy absorbed during transmission of information fromsenor nodes to sink node is becomes a most critical issue inWSN. We have to modify some present algorithms which willboosts the energy of the sensor nodes and so that the lifetimeof the network will improved. In this paper, we modify aclustering algorithm known as LEACH and provide newclustering technique. It will improve the some disadvantagesof LEACH. To minimize the load of the network, minimumnumber of cluster heads has been elected in each transmissionround. The simulation results will show that our proposedprotocol increases network lifetime6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSFirst of all, I would like to thank Lovely ProfessionalUniversity for giving me a chance to work under this topic.I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my projectsupervisor Ms. Deepika Sharma for her continuous supportand encouragement.
  5. 5. International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)www.ijsea.com 114I would also like to express my deep gratitude to my fatherand mother for their care and support during my project.Without them the completion of this project would have beenimpossible.7. REFERENCES[1] Estrin D, Pisterk C D. “Connecting the physical wordwith pervasive networks”. IEEE Pervasive Computing,2002, pp.59-69.[2] D.D.Chaudhary, S.P.Nayse, L.M.Waghmare (2011)“Application Of Wireless Sensor Networks ForGreenhouse Parameter Control In Precision Agriculture”,International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks(IJWMN) Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011,pp. 140-149.[3] Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman, Anantha Chandrakasan,and Hari Balakrishnan (2000), “Energy-EfficientCommunication Protocol for Wireless MicrosensorNetworks”, Proceedings of the 33rd HawaiiInternational Conference on System Sciences– 2000.[4] Peyman Neamatollahi, Hoda Taheri, MahmoudNaghibzadeh, Mohammad-Hossein Yaghmaee (2011) “AHybrid Clustering Approach for Prolonging Lifetime inWireless Sensor Networks” International symposium oncomputer networks and distributed systems,2011,pp.170-174.[5] S. Lindsey and C.S. Raghavendra, .PEGASIS:Powerefficient Gathering in Sensor Information System.Proceedings IEEE Aerospace,Conference, vol. 3, BigSky, MT, Mar. 2002, pp. 1125-1130.[6] Mu Tong and Minghao Tang, “LEACH-B: An ImprovedLEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network” 2010IEEE .

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