Hume 101 report environment & development


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PPT - Environment & Development Class Presentation
w/ current status/intro & eneral issues
w/o charts, and conclusion/solutions

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Hume 101 report environment & development

  2. 2. SECTION 16 ARTICLE II, 1987 PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION “The state shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.”
  3. 3. The State of the Philippine Environment THE Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands with only 300,000 square kilometers of land inhabited by some 80 million people. the Philippines has 220 million hectares of territorial seas that contain the most biologically rich marine life in the world . (by the Sulawesi Marine Triangle) the Philippines is the richest store of fish, corals, and other marine life in the entire world! The Philippines is one of the 18 mega-diverse countries globally. On a per unit area basis, the country is said to be the most diverse. It ranks 25th worldwide in the total number of amphibian, bird, mammal, reptile, and vascular plant species with 10,127 terrestrial species (CEC Phils, 2012). the Philippine environment is in a critical state – legal and illegal logging threaten its remaining 800,000 hectares of forest cover, unnecessary mining activities are in act; and illegal fishing
  4. 4. The State of the Philippine Environment Philippines does not only contain high levels of biodiversity, it is also rich in natural resources. Philippines is considered to be 5th mineralized country in the world, the 3rd country in terms of gold reserves, 4th in copper and 5th in nickel. Total value of resources could reach around $840 billion to $1 trillion. These reserves could be used to support national industrialization and agricultural modernization if properly regulated and developed (CEC Phils, 2012). In 2008, the Philippines was the 6th top fish producing country in the world with its total production of 4.97 million metric tons of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants. This constitutes 3.12% of the total world production of 159.1 million metric tons (CEC Phils, 2012). The country has a variety of renewable and non- renewable energy sources which can lessen dependence on fuel imports. Oil reserve estimates exclude potential reserves in Mindanao, Mindoro, the Visayan Sea and the Spratlys.
  5. 5. The State of the Philippine Environment Agriculture is still the backbone of the Philippine economy and prime source of livelihood of Filipinos. About 70% of population belong to the peasantry. Data from the World bank recorded that the Percent of area(s) of agricultural land in the Philippines were :  39.6% during 2008,  40.1% during 2009,  40.2% during 2010, &  40.6% during the year 2011.
  6. 6. Issues regarding the Philippine Environment Overfishing and destructive fishing Fishers in the Philippines are increasingly coming home with pitiful catches. Of a number of factors which have led to this situation, one stands out: over-fishing in many areas. According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB), there has been a drop of 90% in the quantity of marine organisms that can be trawled in some traditional fishing areas of the Philippines. This isn’t just a question of declining fish stocks and biodiversity, but also of social impacts and economic losses. Mismanagement of fisheries resources is estimated to cost US$ 420 million annually in lost revenues. At the root of the overfishing problem is weak fisheries management, ineffective policies and poor enforcement of fishery laws.
  7. 7. Issues regarding the Philippine Environment Coastal infrastructure development Coastal zone development has been particularly damaging to the Philippines’ marine environment, especially to coral reefs, mangroves, and sea grasses. As populations have increased, so have their needs for construction materials and living space. Excavation, dredging, and coastal conversion to accommodate coastal development have seen corals being extracted for reclamation and construction, especially in coastal villages. Mangroves have particularly suffered from coastal development, notably at the hands of the aquaculture industry. In the Philippines, aquaculture has reduced mangrove stands to only 36% of 1900 levels. Around 40 % of the country's total coral area is in poor condition.
  8. 8. Issues regarding the Philippine Environment Deforestation The Philippines has the second lowest forest coverage in Southeast Asia next to Singapore. After decades of deforestation, which has left about 3% of the original cover, forests continue to be under threat from agriculture and urbanization, illegal logging and forest fires. Sustained forest loss in the Philippines is causing severe soil erosion, and is threatening the country’s rich biodiversity. This is particularly worrying as many of the Philippines’ species, which depend on these forests, are endemic (they cannot be found anywhere else in the world). For example, of 180 native terrestrial mammal species here, about 61% are endemic. Inconsistent laws, inadequate regulations, weak enforcement and lack of funding are making forest conservation a major challenge.
  9. 9. Issues regarding the Philippine Environment Pollution Only about 10% of sewage in the Philippines is treated or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. The rest goes back to nature – usually the sea. In this context of poor waste treatment and high population growth, water pollution is a growing problem for the country’s groundwater, rivers, lakes, and coastal areas. Polluting industrial material is also found in abandoned mining areas, with mercury pollution affecting water bodies in these areas. These problems are unfolding in a context of poor planning, and weak management and enforcement of regulations.
  10. 10. FRAMEWORK Philippine Development Plan: 2011-2016 Improved conservation, protection and rehabilitation of natural resources Improved environmental quality for a cleaner and healthier environment Enhanced resilience of natural systems and improved adaptive capacities of human to cope with environmental hazards including climate related risks
  11. 11. Sources: ental_problems__in_philippines/ BirdLife. Red Data Book - Threatened Birds of Asia. Accessed July 11th, 2007. World Bank. Philippines Environment. Accessed July 11th, 2007. WWF. 2004. The Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion - Cradle of Life. Accessed July 11th, 2007. environment
  12. 12. Sources: environmental-issues-and-struggles-made-news bulletin_031216_1.htm fishing-and-industry.html