2011 10.5 overfishing


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2011 10.5 overfishing

  1. 2. <ul><li>Catching too much fish for the system to support by reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>A non-sustainable use of the oceans leading to extinction of certain species. </li></ul><ul><li>On a global scale we have enough fishing capacity to cover at least four Earth like planets. </li></ul><ul><li>Many fishing methods are so harmful that they are unsustainable in their own way. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>If overfishing continues, fish populations will be reduced even more, no matter what measures are taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Overfishing not only depletes the fish but seriously harms marine environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the fish population has decreased so much, many other species have been placed at risk because they now lack their major food source. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Fish Stocks (1): </li></ul><ul><li>52% of fish stocks are fully exploited </li></ul><ul><li>20% are moderately exploited </li></ul><ul><li>17% are overexploited </li></ul><ul><li>7% are depleted </li></ul><ul><li>1% is recovering from depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1950 and 1994, the ocean fishing industry increased the total catch by 400%. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Fish Stocks are expected to Collapse by 2050 at Current Exploitation Rates. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>THE CURRENT LEVEL OF GLOBAL FISH CATCH IS IN NO WAY SUSTAINABLE!!! </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Between 1950 and 1994, the fishing industry increased the total catch by 400%. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Fish Stocks are expected to collapse by 2050 at current exploitation rates. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>THE CURRENT LEVEL OF GLOBAL FISH CATCH IS IN NO WAY SUSTAINABLE!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Fish Stocks (1): </li></ul><ul><li>20% are moderately exploited </li></ul><ul><li>52% are fully exploited </li></ul><ul><li>28 % are overfished, depleted, or recovering </li></ul>
  5. 6. The graph points out that current levels of fishing are obviously unsustainable.
  6. 7. These 10 ecosystems were studied for their MMSY, or multi-species maximum sustainable yield. Fishing below MMSY provides ecosystems with a chance to recover.
  7. 8. <ul><li>Huge negative effects on the global economy and spawns malnutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Global fisheries provide about $225 - $240 billion each year. </li></ul><ul><li>If more sustainable practices were used, there would be a $36 billion addition to that yearly profit – 16% increase in global income. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1950 and 2004, the planet's lost out on about 10 million tons of fish catch.  </li></ul><ul><li>20 million people a year suffer from malnutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Global governments spend about $27 billion a year on subsidies to the fishing industry, 60% goes towards unsustainable fishing operations. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Cause: Commercially valuable, bigger, slower growing species have been overfished. (e.g., tuna, cod, snapper)  </li></ul><ul><li>Effect: They target large quantities of smaller species of fish with less commercial value. (squid, sardines, oysters, mussels, and shrimp) </li></ul><ul><li>Less predatory pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Less competition for food </li></ul><ul><li>Predators deprived of food source needed in order to re-establish the population </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Living creatures caught unintentionally by fishing gear. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike target species, bycatch is unwanted and often unused. </li></ul><ul><li>Bycatch may be kept or sold </li></ul><ul><li>Might be thrown back as discard if not usable. </li></ul><ul><li>Handling and exposure sometimes injure the bycatch, which may die after being discarded. </li></ul><ul><li>This affects the current population </li></ul><ul><li>Influences the species’ opportunity to reproduce. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Gillnetting – A invisible to fish fine-filament net used for capturing mainly salmon, cod and sardine. Damages other species. (14) </li></ul>Cyanide fishing – Cyanide is used to stun and capture live coral reef fish. Cheap and effective but illegal. (13)
  11. 12. Explosive fishing – the use of dynamite or other explosives to kill fish. Causes for major destruction of reef. (15) Long-line fishing – long baited hooks used to catch swordfish, tuna, sharks, birds, and turtles. They are estimated to kill 180,000 birds worldwide every year. (11)
  12. 13. <ul><li>Dragging huge, heavy nets along the sea floor.  </li></ul><ul><li>Large metal plates and rubber wheels attached to these nets move along the bottom and crush nearly everything in their path. </li></ul><ul><li>Water life forms are very slow to recover from such damage. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Preserved areas where species are protected </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing or catching of other marine animals is prohibited </li></ul><ul><li>Help species regenerate, to restore population </li></ul><ul><li>Helps species which are not included in no-take zones to restore population </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>The farming of aquatic organisms – keeping them under controlled conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the worlds dependence on wild stocks of fish </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to feed the worlds growing population. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative impact on wild species </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. – salmon: carnivores which need protein -> comes from forage fish -> salmon wants more forage fish -> impacts survivability of wild salmon </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>The population of breeding tunas has been declining steeply for the past decade </li></ul><ul><li>Will be wiped out completely in 3 years if nothing is done </li></ul><ul><li>Tunas that are able to reproduce – being wiped out </li></ul><ul><li>The size of mature tunas has more than halved since the 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>The average size of tuna caught off the coast of Libya has dropped from 124kg in 2001 to only 65kg last year. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial fishing is the main reason for the problem </li></ul><ul><li>WWF is calling for the immediate closure of the Mediterranean bluefin tuna fishery to give the species a chance to recover. </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to create a marine reserve for bluefin tuna in the Balearic Islands. (17, 18) </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Problem since 1700s due to human impact – growing population and economy </li></ul><ul><li>1890s – dams were affecting salmon runs </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric and flood-control projects reduce area available to salmon by half </li></ul><ul><li>Also affected by grazing, irrigation, logging, mining, pollution, urbanization, predators </li></ul><ul><li>Salmon hatcheries – don’t work (21) </li></ul><ul><li>Salmon farms – also not very effective (21) </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>http://overfishing.org/pages/what_is_overfishing.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://see-the-sea.org/topics/commerce/overfishing.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/08/how-bad-is-overfishing-what-to-stop-it.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.seafoodsource.com/newsarticledetail.aspx?id=4294990550 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.seaweb.org/resources/briefings/fishdownweb.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://archive.greenpeace.org/comms/fish/part3.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://seagrant.gso.uri.edu/factsheets/Bycatch.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://food.change.org/blog/view/overfishing_hurts_economy_public_health_and_ocean_ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32222783/ns/world_news-world_environment/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://apesnature.homestead.com/chapter12.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.copperwiki.org/index.php?title=Destructive_fishing </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.greenpeace.org/international/campaigns/save-our-seas-2/save-deep-sea-life </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wri.org/publication/reefs-at-risk/cyanide-fishing </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jobmonkey.com/alaska/html/gillnetting.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tracc.00server.com/Fisheries/blast_fishing/blastfishing_index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.providence.edu/polisci/students/aquaculture/environmentalimpact.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://wwf.panda.org/?162001/Mediterranean-bluefin-tuna-stocks-collapsing-now-as-fishing-season-opens </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/oceans/marine-reserves/roadmap-to-recovery/Save-the-bluefin-tuna-of-the-Mediterranean-/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pnwsalmoncenter.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/anth481/sal/crintro1.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.groundtruthtrekking.org/Issues/Fisheries/Salmon.html </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/teacher_resources/own_goals/overfishing/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://undercovercop.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/wwf_liikakalastus_EU_2007_eng.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.macalester.edu/environmentalstudies/students/projects/citizenscience2008/japanwhaling/issues.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://na.oceana.org/en/blog/2010/10/chile-reduces-jack-mackerel-overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>http://marinebio.org/oceans/conservation/sustainable-fisheries.asp </li></ul><ul><li>http://veganworldwidenews.blogspot.com/2009_06_01_archive.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://scienceblogs.com/shiftingbaselines/2008/02/fishing_down_the_food_web_turn.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.smugmug.com/gallery/11627606_JyU7i/1/819830271_ee3vX#819830271_ee3vX </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cdnn.info/news/article/a030429.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wwf.org.ph/gallery.php?filter=3 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www2.convention.co.jp/maguro/e_maguro/e_tuna_facts.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://web.mit.edu/12.000/www/m2011/finalwebsite/problem/present/tech.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>http://earthhopenetwork.net/World_Governments_Adopt_Sustainable_Fisheries_Resolution.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/fisheries/4.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://chefsblade.monster.com/news/articles/470-are-fish-farms-the-way-to-meet-growing-fish-consumption </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.moyolaangling.com/content/?id=31&l1id=22&l2id=30 </li></ul><ul><li>http://ecolocalizer.com/2009/04/15/mediterranean-bluefin-tuna-will-disappear-by-2012/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/footprint/smart_fishing/sustainable_fisheries/bluefin_tuna/tracking_the_giants/ </li></ul><ul><li> http://www.biology-blog.com/blogs/archives/Biology-blog/520525028-Feb-14-2008.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/Alaska/Fish_King_Salmon.html </li></ul>