Philippine Milestones on Coastal Marine Management


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Philippine Milestones on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Management

Ms. Teresita Samson Castillo
Vice-Minister, Department of Environment and Natural Resources Philippines

2010 Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts, and Islands
3-7 May 2010

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Philippine Milestones on Coastal Marine Management

  1. 1. Philippine Milestones onCoastal and Marine 2010 Global Conference on Gl b l C f Oceans, Coasts,Biodiversity Management and Islands 3-7 May 2010Ms. Teresita Samson CastilloVice-Minister, Department of Environment and Natural Resources Philippines p pp
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation1. Marine Biodiversity in the Philippines2. Major Threats to Coastal & Marine 2 M j Th t t C t l & M i Biodiversity in the Philippines3. Coastal & Marine Resources: Status &  Trends4. Managing the Threats5. Issues and Gaps (Challenges) p ( g )6. Future Plans/Recommendations
  3. 3. Marine Biodiversity in the Philippines M i Bi di it i th Phili i The Philippines, being situated at the Philippines apex of the coral triangle, is considered to be the richest marine eco-region in the th world. ldNASA Blue Marble
  4. 4. M i Bi di it i th Marine Biodiversity in the  Philippines ppCoastal and marine ecosystems y • Beaches • mangrove forests mangrove forests • coral reefs • seagrass beds • soft‐bottom communities (especially estuaries) • open marine waters and small islands open marine waters and small islands
  5. 5. Major Threats to Coastal and  Marine Biodiversity in the  M B d h Philippines
  6. 6. Coastal and Marine Resources of the PhilippinesMajor Threats to Marine BiodiversityMajor Threats to Marine Biodiversity1. Human‐induced and direct stresses on species  and ecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem biodiversity • Overexploitation through unsustainable fishing • Use of destructive fishing methods • Deforestation • Aquarium and souvenir trade • Expanding human settlements p g • Coastal pollution • Dredging and land reclamation Dredging and land reclamation • Coastal development
  7. 7. Coastal and Marine Resources of the PhilippinesMajor Threats to Marine BiodiversityMajor Threats to Marine Biodiversity 2.  Climate change • Coral bleaching • S Sea acidification and  idifi ti d sea level rise—can  cause severe impacts  cause severe impacts on marine biodiversity
  8. 8. Coastal and Marine Resources/Ecosystem in the R /E h Philippines: Status and Trends
  9. 9. STATUS OF PHILIPPINE COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE/ECOSYSTEMStatus of Coral Reefs (as of 2009): f ) キ 468 species  scleractinian corals; キ 50+ species soft corals; キ 25,000 km2 estimated  cover, with most  diverse and most  extensive in the  southern and central  southern and central parts of the country;
  10. 10. STATUS OF PHILIPPINE COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE/ECOSYSTEMStatus of Coral Reefs: キ Coral reefs contribute up to 70% of the total fishery production; and キ Small fishers who comprise about 62% of  the population living along coastal areas  the population living along coastal areas are directly dependent on reefs for their  livelihood
  11. 11. STATUS OF PHILIPPINE COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE/ECOSYSTEMIssues on Coral Reefs: キ Philippines is considered to be one of the highly threatened reef areas in the world キ Philippine reefs may be in a  steady state of decline (from 5%                      to 3% to >1%) キ Widespread coral bleaching; キ Invasive species and Crown of Thorns starfish infestations
  12. 12. Excellent coral cover condition with several colonies of thebranching coral Acropora formosa (upper right) with foliose coralMontipora foliosa
  13. 13. STATUS OF PHILIPPINE COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE/ECOSYSTEM Status of Seagrasses: キ The Philippines has the  second highest seagrass  diversity in the world; di it i th ld キ It contributes about 19  species or about 55% of the  species or about 55% of the number of species in East  Asia; キ Seagrasses in the Philippines  are now distributed over an  area about 27,282 sq. m. b 27 282
  14. 14. STATUS OF PHILIPPINE COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE/ECOSYSTEMIssues on Seagrasses:  キ decline in coastal water quality ; キ degradation of environment and  g resources; and キ human‐induced  disturbances.
  15. 15. STATUS OF PHILIPPINE COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE/ECOSYSTEMStatus of Fisheries: キ Pelagic fish production contributed  70% of the country’s total marine  capture fisheries; キ Fisheries production shows  continuing upward trend, with  significant contribution of the  significant contribution of the aquaculture and mariculture sectors,  particularly seaweeds. キ Recent data on exploitation rates of  p ( pp ) selected fish species (n= 129 spp.)  showed high extraction patterns
  16. 16. STATUS OF PHILIPPINE COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE/ECOSYSTEMMangroves: Status and Issues キ Th i There is a significant  i ifi t decline in mangrove forest  cover  due to the  cover due to the conversion of mangrove  forests to fishponds; キ Mangrove forest areas  were issued with Fishpond  Leasing Agreements in  Leasing Agreements in 1973‐2002, causing a  g g significant damage to the  ecosystem.
  17. 17. STATUS OF PHILIPPINE COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE/ECOSYSTEMOther Marine Resources: Status キ 5 species of Marine Turtles are found in the Philippines; キ 1755 reef‐associated fish species キ 168 species of cartilaginous fishes ; キ 820 species of algae;
  18. 18. STATUS OF PHILIPPINE COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE/ECOSYSTEM Other Marine Resources: Status キ 648 species of mollusks; 648 species of mollusks; キ 1062species of seaweeds  including sea algae; and i l di l d キ 27 species of marine mammals  have been classified as  threatened species) Phil. WebsiteFrom WWF-P
  19. 19. Coastal and Marine Resources/Ecosystem in the R /E h Philippines: Managing the Threats 
  20. 20. Managing Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and ManagementE t C ti dM t Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) ‐ Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) ‐ national strategy for the sustainable  development of the country’s coastal and  p f y marine environment and resources ‐ addresses the interlinkages among addresses the interlinkages among  associated watersheds, estuaries and  wetlands, and coastal seas, and also  among all relevant national and local  agencies, civil society, and the private  sectors
  21. 21. Managing Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and ManagementConservation and Management Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) – Involves Action Plans/Strategies on the ff: I l A i Pl /S i h ff •Habitat Management •Fisheries Management •Fisheries Management •Shoreline management g •Waste Management •Enterprise and Livelihood Development •Sustainable Coastal Tourism  •Coastal Zoning •Legal and Institutional Development •Risk/coastal hazard management •Risk/coastal hazard management
  22. 22. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management(included in the ICM Implementation Program)1. Mangrove management  g g 282,044 ha total mangrove forest cover  as of 2009. (Still subjected to ground validation) as of 2009. (Still subjected to ground validation) Mangrove Nursery Establishment and  Reforestation Identification of areas for rehabilitation  in priority municipalities in priority municipalities 2009 – 2,000 ha. (Upland Development Program) 2010 – 7,500 ha. ( DENR GPOA)
  23. 23. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management 1. Mangrove management  PAWB‐CMMO, together with the  PAWB CMMO together with the other concerned bureaus/  agencies, are currently reviewing  existing policies and laws  concerning mangrove.  Guidelines  for proper and effective  for proper and effective mangrove rehabilitation and  validation are also currently being  developed.  d l d
  24. 24. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management 2. Establishment of MPAs to increase fish stocks  Mandated by Republic Act 7586 Mandated by Republic Act 7586 or the NIPAS Act or through  R.A. 8550 (Fisheries Code)  via local ordinance. i l l di serve as an important strategy for ICM in the Philippines Formulation of MPA Management Plans Formulation of MPA Management Plans
  25. 25. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management2. Establishment of MPAs to increase fish stocks  1,169  existing MPAs and 164 proposed MPAs as of  1 169 existing MPAs and 164 proposed MPAs as of 2007 compared to 439 existing and 139 proposed a  decade ago Occupy 0.5% of municipal waters and 2.7‐ Occupy 0.5% of municipal waters and 2.7‐3.4% of coral  reef area of the country MPAs: significant increase in size  (48% within the  range of 11 to 100 hectares)
  26. 26. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management2. Establishment of MPAs to increase fish stocks i.e. Status of Reef fishes in MPAs vs in Unprotected  AreasTubbataha Reefs (MPA) in the 1990s – 87 tons/km2 / in the 2000s – 100‐200 tons/km2Central Visayas Protected Marine Areas P t t dM i A 1990s‐2000s – 100‐150 tons/km2 Several Unprotected Areas 1990s‐2000s – 5‐15 tons/km2 (n=20) 1990s‐2000s  5‐15 tons/km (n=20) 
  27. 27. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management3. Conservation of coastal habitats and other marine  resources National Policy on Biological diversity is being  implemented throughout the country,  implemented throughout the country, Seagrass Conservation Strategy‐‐ Philippine National  Seagrass Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (NSCS)  g gy ( ) by Philippine National Seagrass Committee 
  28. 28. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management3. Conservation of coastal habitats  and other marine resources Marine Turtles ConservationDENR‐PAWB Pawikan Conservation Project (PCP)  Developmental and foraging habitats of marine  turtles are foraging habitats of marine turtles arebeing proposed for declaration  as Critical Habitats pursuant to Republic Act 9147 or the Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act of 2001. 
  29. 29. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management4. Adaptation strategies of the coastal and marine  sector to climate change sector to climate change The UNDP‐managed joint program on Strengthening  the Philippines’ Institutional Capacity to Adapt to  the Philippines’ Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change (2008‐2010) Development of national framework strategies for  climate change
  30. 30. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management4. Adaptation strategies of coastal and marine  sector to climate change Proposed full protection and management of at least  Proposed full protection and management of at least 30% of the coastal and marine ecosystems to increase  resilience of coastal environment against climate change Set up marine reserve networks Substantially reduce human‐related stressors 
  31. 31. CURRENT CONSERVATION STATUSManaging Threats: Coastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management5. Participation in different local/ internationally‐ funded project and adherence to international  commitments
  32. 32. ISSUES and GAPSCoastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and ManagementConservation and Management“The Philippines does however, have the most progressive  programs for public awareness and introduction to  programs for p blic a areness and introd ction to participatory management for the coastal areas in the  region. The Philippines has all the tools to be a model in  Asia, but continuity and political will appear to be  absent in the system.” ‐‐Flewelling (2001),  l lli ( ) (describing the monitoring, control and surveillance  (MCS) system in the Philippines
  33. 33. ISSUES and GAPSCoastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and ManagementConservation and Management1. Biodiversity Data Gaps • Inadequate comprehensive data to better  understand the state biodiversity of the  selected coastal and marine ecosystems2.2 Low utilization of research output  ili i f h
  34. 34. ISSUES and GAPSCoastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and ManagementConservation and Management3. Need to develop a more effective Need to develop a more effective  implementation strategy of national laws and  policies affecting the species and ecosystem  diversity4. Capacity Building and Resource generation; education-awareness, conservation ethics d ti ti thi and perceptions
  35. 35. ISSUES and GAPSCoastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and Management5. Need for a more aggressive strategy to fully  implement coastal laws, rules and regulations6. Lack of land‐based livelihood projects to limit 6 k f l d b d li lih d j li i extraction/utilization of marine products  thereby giving chance for coastal habitats to  thereby giving chance for coastal habitats to recover
  36. 36. ISSUES and GAPSCoastal & Marine Resources/ Ecosystem Conservation and ManagementConservation and Management7.  More focus on education‐awareness,  conservation ethics and perceptions
  37. 37. Future Plans/ Recommendation
  38. 38. RecommendationsHarmonization of efforts, sustained management interventions and stakeholder support are keys to  pp ysave the coastal ecosystemComprehensive monitoring and evaluation of protected area management and other policiesIntegration of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use in the school curricula at all levels
  39. 39. RecommendationsEfficient and effective information dissemination Exploration of innovative financing optionsE l ti fi ti fi i tiReduction of coastal and marine emerging pressures through adaptive management