The First Feudal Age (300-1000 AD) -Key Concepts-
I.  Successors to Rome: “Shadows of the Empire”
A.  Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Greatest Emperor: Justinian (527-565 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Handed classical learning and scie...
A.  Byzantine Empire (cont) <ul><li>The Hippodrome </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian’s wife Theodora—life and influence </li></u...
A.  Byzantine Empire (cont) <ul><li>Warfare and the enemies of the Empire </li></ul><ul><li>-- “Greek fire” </li></ul><ul>...
B.  Islam and the Islamic World <ul><li>The life of Muhammad (570-632 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>The Koran: “recitings” </li></...
B.  Islam and the Islamic World (cont) <ul><li>The relationship of men to women </li></ul><ul><li>No distinction between c...
B.  Islam and the Islamic World (cont) <ul><li>Successors to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>--Shi’ites vs. Sunnies </li></ul><...
C.  The Kingdom of the Franks
(1) Germanic Culture <ul><li>Centrality of the tribal unit or family </li></ul><ul><li>The leadership of the war chieftain...
(1) Germanic Culture (cont) <ul><li>Blending of Germanic and Roman culture </li></ul><ul><li>The decline of town life and ...
(1) Germanic Culture (cont) <ul><li>Views of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>--Eye Diseas...
(2) The Merovingian Dynasty <ul><li>The Franks: least romanized and most orthodox of the Germanic tribes </li></ul><ul><li...
(3) The Carolingian Dynasty and Charlemagne <ul><li>Pepin the Short, the first Carolingian king (751) </li></ul><ul><li>--...
(3) Charlemagne (cont) <ul><li>Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (Christmas Day, 800) </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s palace city...
(3) Charlemagne (cont) <ul><li>The Carolingian Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>--Alcuin of York </li></ul><ul><li>The Disint...
II.  The “Dark Ages” (9 th  and 10 th  Centuries) <ul><li>Agricultural Difficulties and Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Populat...
III.  The Role of the Church
A.  Physical Protection <ul><li>Offered safe haven to neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Some churchmen were renowned fighters </...
B.  Preservers of Greco-Roman Culture <ul><li>Significance of copying manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>The role of Pope Grego...
C.  Spiritual Protection <ul><li>Superstitious, illiterate age </li></ul><ul><li>The Church was the door to salvation </li...
C.  Spiritual Protection (cont) <ul><li>Sacrament of Matrimony </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrament of the Eucharist </li></ul><ul>...
C.  Spiritual Protection (cont) <ul><li>The Power of “Holy” Intercessors </li></ul><ul><li>Veneration of the Saints </li><...
C.  Spiritual Protection (cont) <ul><li>The cultural power of calling on saints for help </li></ul><ul><li>The Supernatura...
IV.  Feudalism and Vassalage
A.  Physical Protection <ul><li>The origins of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>The lord as the central figure of the feudal sy...
A.  Physical Protection (cont) <ul><li>The lord’s obligations to his vassal </li></ul><ul><li>-- fief </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
B.  Life in a Medieval Castle <ul><li>William Manchester’s  A World Lit by Fire  and Joseph and Frances Gies’  Life in a M...
B.  Life in a Medieval Castle (cont) <ul><li>Daily routine and dining </li></ul><ul><li>The marriage of aristocratic women...
B.  Life in a Medieval Castle (cont) <ul><li>The travels of the young knight </li></ul><ul><li>Tournaments and Jousts </li...
V.  Manorialism
A.  Function <ul><li>Western Europe was much more rural than Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Manorialism was the economic...
A.  Function (cont) <ul><li>Composition and administration of the manor </li></ul><ul><li>“ Custom of the Manor” </li></ul...
B.  Life in a Medieval Village <ul><li>Living conditions of the serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Striking lack of privacy for famil...
B.  Life in a Medieval Village (cont) <ul><li>Types of meals eaten by villagers </li></ul><ul><li>Beer: the universal drin...
B.  Life in a Medieval Village (cont) <ul><li>Center of manorial life was the village church </li></ul><ul><li>Village chu...
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H113i

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H113i

  1. 1. The First Feudal Age (300-1000 AD) -Key Concepts-
  2. 2. I. Successors to Rome: “Shadows of the Empire”
  3. 3. A. Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Greatest Emperor: Justinian (527-565 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Handed classical learning and science back to the west </li></ul><ul><li>--Justinian’s Code of Laws (533) </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilding program in Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>The Hagia Sophia (537) </li></ul>
  4. 4. A. Byzantine Empire (cont) <ul><li>The Hippodrome </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian’s wife Theodora—life and influence </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic nature of the Eastern Emperors </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of the Emperor and his administration </li></ul>
  5. 5. A. Byzantine Empire (cont) <ul><li>Warfare and the enemies of the Empire </li></ul><ul><li>-- “Greek fire” </li></ul><ul><li>--Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople (1453) </li></ul><ul><li>Tension between the eastern and western churches over icons </li></ul><ul><li>Solemn, otherworldly preoccupation </li></ul>
  6. 6. B. Islam and the Islamic World <ul><li>The life of Muhammad (570-632 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>The Koran: “recitings” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Islam”: submission to Allah </li></ul><ul><li>The “Hegira” or flight to Medina (622) </li></ul><ul><li>The notion of “jihad” </li></ul><ul><li>The Ka’ba and the Black Stone </li></ul>
  7. 7. B. Islam and the Islamic World (cont) <ul><li>The relationship of men to women </li></ul><ul><li>No distinction between clergy and laity </li></ul><ul><li>The five pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Differences from Christianity </li></ul>
  8. 8. B. Islam and the Islamic World (cont) <ul><li>Successors to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>--Shi’ites vs. Sunnies </li></ul><ul><li>The Muslim Empire (632-732 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim intellectual and scientific achievements </li></ul><ul><li>--studied the Greco-Roman classics </li></ul><ul><li>--the number “0” </li></ul>
  9. 9. C. The Kingdom of the Franks
  10. 10. (1) Germanic Culture <ul><li>Centrality of the tribal unit or family </li></ul><ul><li>The leadership of the war chieftain </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Germanic law </li></ul><ul><li>-- “wergeld” </li></ul><ul><li>--trial by ordeal </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic treatment of women </li></ul>
  11. 11. (1) Germanic Culture (cont) <ul><li>Blending of Germanic and Roman culture </li></ul><ul><li>The decline of town life and trade </li></ul><ul><li>The role of forests in Germanic thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement patterns </li></ul>
  12. 12. (1) Germanic Culture (cont) <ul><li>Views of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>--Eye Disease </li></ul><ul><li>--Frequent Stomach Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>-- “Leech” </li></ul><ul><li>--Broken bones, wounds and burns </li></ul><ul><li>Cavities below the gum line were prevalent </li></ul><ul><li>The role of monasteries in providing medical care </li></ul>
  13. 13. (2) The Merovingian Dynasty <ul><li>The Franks: least romanized and most orthodox of the Germanic tribes </li></ul><ul><li>--Clovis: 1 st Frankish King </li></ul><ul><li>The struggles and ineffectiveness of the Merovingian kings </li></ul><ul><li>The “Mayor of the Palace” </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Martel’s defeat of the Muslims at Tours </li></ul>
  14. 14. (3) The Carolingian Dynasty and Charlemagne <ul><li>Pepin the Short, the first Carolingian king (751) </li></ul><ul><li>--The “Donation of Pepin” </li></ul><ul><li>Pepin’s son, Charles the Great, or Charlemagne (768-814) </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s military exploits </li></ul><ul><li>Continued reciprocal relationship with the Pope </li></ul>
  15. 15. (3) Charlemagne (cont) <ul><li>Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (Christmas Day, 800) </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s palace city of Aachen </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s challenges in administering such a vast empire </li></ul><ul><li>-- missi dominici </li></ul>
  16. 16. (3) Charlemagne (cont) <ul><li>The Carolingian Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>--Alcuin of York </li></ul><ul><li>The Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Verdun (843) </li></ul><ul><li>--Louis the German </li></ul><ul><li>--Charles the Bald </li></ul><ul><li>--Lothair </li></ul>
  17. 17. II. The “Dark Ages” (9 th and 10 th Centuries) <ul><li>Agricultural Difficulties and Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Population Decline </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim and Magyar invaders </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Threat = Vikings </li></ul><ul><li>Viking strategy of terror </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of Viking boats </li></ul><ul><li>The extent of Viking raids </li></ul>
  18. 18. III. The Role of the Church
  19. 19. A. Physical Protection <ul><li>Offered safe haven to neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Some churchmen were renowned fighters </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries preserved important arts of manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Popes fill political vacuum in the west </li></ul><ul><li>--Leo I and Attila the Hun </li></ul><ul><li>--Gregory I and the Lombards </li></ul>
  20. 20. B. Preservers of Greco-Roman Culture <ul><li>Significance of copying manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>The role of Pope Gregory I </li></ul><ul><li>--had been secular Roman administrator </li></ul><ul><li>Realized early on that no help would be forthcoming from the Byzantine Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Church split in 1054 </li></ul>
  21. 21. C. Spiritual Protection <ul><li>Superstitious, illiterate age </li></ul><ul><li>The Church was the door to salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Deadly sins: pride, envy, anger, greed, lust, gluttony, and sloth </li></ul><ul><li>Seven sacraments </li></ul><ul><li>Sacraments of ordination and extreme unction </li></ul>
  22. 22. C. Spiritual Protection (cont) <ul><li>Sacrament of Matrimony </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrament of the Eucharist </li></ul><ul><li>-- “transubstantiation” </li></ul><ul><li>Duties and categories of the clergy </li></ul><ul><li>-- “regular” vs. “secular” clergy </li></ul><ul><li>The Sacrament of Penance </li></ul><ul><li>-- “Purgatory” </li></ul>
  23. 23. C. Spiritual Protection (cont) <ul><li>The Power of “Holy” Intercessors </li></ul><ul><li>Veneration of the Saints </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in the pattern of sainthood into the Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>The growing importance of female saints </li></ul><ul><li>--In 1100, only 10% of saints were female; by 15 th Century, 29% were female </li></ul>
  24. 24. C. Spiritual Protection (cont) <ul><li>The cultural power of calling on saints for help </li></ul><ul><li>The Supernatural power of Relics </li></ul><ul><li>Christian burial near the Church altar </li></ul>
  25. 25. IV. Feudalism and Vassalage
  26. 26. A. Physical Protection <ul><li>The origins of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>The lord as the central figure of the feudal system </li></ul><ul><li>The expense of medieval warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Contractual nature of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>The local and emotional nature of feudalism </li></ul>
  27. 27. A. Physical Protection (cont) <ul><li>The lord’s obligations to his vassal </li></ul><ul><li>-- fief </li></ul><ul><li>The vassal’s obligations to his lord </li></ul><ul><li>-- scutage </li></ul><ul><li>The complexity of feudal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>-- “subinfeudation” </li></ul><ul><li>-- liege lord </li></ul>
  28. 28. B. Life in a Medieval Castle <ul><li>William Manchester’s A World Lit by Fire and Joseph and Frances Gies’ Life in a Medieval Castle </li></ul><ul><li>Interior and furnishings of the castle </li></ul><ul><li>Servants in the castle </li></ul>
  29. 29. B. Life in a Medieval Castle (cont) <ul><li>Daily routine and dining </li></ul><ul><li>The marriage of aristocratic women </li></ul><ul><li>The life of aristocratic women </li></ul><ul><li>The church’s view of women </li></ul><ul><li>Women and sex </li></ul><ul><li>The early life of young noblemen </li></ul><ul><li>The ceremony of knighthood </li></ul>
  30. 30. B. Life in a Medieval Castle (cont) <ul><li>The travels of the young knight </li></ul><ul><li>Tournaments and Jousts </li></ul><ul><li>Tension surrounding the life of a young knight </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal of chivalry </li></ul><ul><li>-- “troubadours” </li></ul>
  31. 31. V. Manorialism
  32. 32. A. Function <ul><li>Western Europe was much more rural than Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Manorialism was the economic foundation of feudal society </li></ul><ul><li>The “open field” system of medieval farming </li></ul><ul><li>Origin and status of serfdom </li></ul><ul><li>By 800 AD, nearly 60% of western Europe was enserfed </li></ul>
  33. 33. A. Function (cont) <ul><li>Composition and administration of the manor </li></ul><ul><li>“ Custom of the Manor” </li></ul><ul><li>Tax obligations of the serfs </li></ul><ul><li>-- “banalities” </li></ul><ul><li>Other limitations on the activities of the serfs </li></ul>
  34. 34. B. Life in a Medieval Village <ul><li>Living conditions of the serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Striking lack of privacy for family members </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of dietary options for peasants </li></ul><ul><li>The central role of bread in the peasant diet—80% of caloric content </li></ul>
  35. 35. B. Life in a Medieval Village (cont) <ul><li>Types of meals eaten by villagers </li></ul><ul><li>Beer: the universal drink of northern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents as a way of life in manorial villages </li></ul><ul><li>The role of women and village clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval view of children </li></ul>
  36. 36. B. Life in a Medieval Village (cont) <ul><li>Center of manorial life was the village church </li></ul><ul><li>Village church services </li></ul><ul><li>Life was short and frightening for village peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Village life was strictly hierarchical </li></ul><ul><li>Village life was also very communal </li></ul><ul><li>Village life was always very local </li></ul>

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