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Use this in my high school World History Class.

Use this in my high school World History Class.

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H113i Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The First Feudal Age (300-1000 AD) -Key Concepts-
  • 2. I. Successors to Rome: “Shadows of the Empire”
  • 3. A. Byzantine Empire
    • Greatest Emperor: Justinian (527-565 AD)
    • Handed classical learning and science back to the west
    • --Justinian’s Code of Laws (533)
    • Rebuilding program in Constantinople
    • The Hagia Sophia (537)
  • 4. A. Byzantine Empire (cont)
    • The Hippodrome
    • Justinian’s wife Theodora—life and influence
    • Autocratic nature of the Eastern Emperors
    • Selection of the Emperor and his administration
  • 5. A. Byzantine Empire (cont)
    • Warfare and the enemies of the Empire
    • -- “Greek fire”
    • --Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople (1453)
    • Tension between the eastern and western churches over icons
    • Solemn, otherworldly preoccupation
  • 6. B. Islam and the Islamic World
    • The life of Muhammad (570-632 AD)
    • The Koran: “recitings”
    • “ Islam”: submission to Allah
    • The “Hegira” or flight to Medina (622)
    • The notion of “jihad”
    • The Ka’ba and the Black Stone
  • 7. B. Islam and the Islamic World (cont)
    • The relationship of men to women
    • No distinction between clergy and laity
    • The five pillars of Islam
    • Differences from Christianity
  • 8. B. Islam and the Islamic World (cont)
    • Successors to Muhammad
    • --Shi’ites vs. Sunnies
    • The Muslim Empire (632-732 AD)
    • Muslim intellectual and scientific achievements
    • --studied the Greco-Roman classics
    • --the number “0”
  • 9. C. The Kingdom of the Franks
  • 10. (1) Germanic Culture
    • Centrality of the tribal unit or family
    • The leadership of the war chieftain
    • Characteristics of Germanic law
    • -- “wergeld”
    • --trial by ordeal
    • Germanic treatment of women
  • 11. (1) Germanic Culture (cont)
    • Blending of Germanic and Roman culture
    • The decline of town life and trade
    • The role of forests in Germanic thinking
    • Settlement patterns
  • 12. (1) Germanic Culture (cont)
    • Views of Disease
    • Treatment of Disease
    • --Eye Disease
    • --Frequent Stomach Disorders
    • -- “Leech”
    • --Broken bones, wounds and burns
    • Cavities below the gum line were prevalent
    • The role of monasteries in providing medical care
  • 13. (2) The Merovingian Dynasty
    • The Franks: least romanized and most orthodox of the Germanic tribes
    • --Clovis: 1 st Frankish King
    • The struggles and ineffectiveness of the Merovingian kings
    • The “Mayor of the Palace”
    • Charles Martel’s defeat of the Muslims at Tours
  • 14. (3) The Carolingian Dynasty and Charlemagne
    • Pepin the Short, the first Carolingian king (751)
    • --The “Donation of Pepin”
    • Pepin’s son, Charles the Great, or Charlemagne (768-814)
    • Charlemagne’s military exploits
    • Continued reciprocal relationship with the Pope
  • 15. (3) Charlemagne (cont)
    • Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (Christmas Day, 800)
    • Charlemagne’s palace city of Aachen
    • Charlemagne’s challenges in administering such a vast empire
    • -- missi dominici
  • 16. (3) Charlemagne (cont)
    • The Carolingian Renaissance
    • --Alcuin of York
    • The Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire
    • The Treaty of Verdun (843)
    • --Louis the German
    • --Charles the Bald
    • --Lothair
  • 17. II. The “Dark Ages” (9 th and 10 th Centuries)
    • Agricultural Difficulties and Violence
    • Population Decline
    • Muslim and Magyar invaders
    • Chief Threat = Vikings
    • Viking strategy of terror
    • Effectiveness of Viking boats
    • The extent of Viking raids
  • 18. III. The Role of the Church
  • 19. A. Physical Protection
    • Offered safe haven to neighbors
    • Some churchmen were renowned fighters
    • Monasteries preserved important arts of manufacturing
    • Popes fill political vacuum in the west
    • --Leo I and Attila the Hun
    • --Gregory I and the Lombards
  • 20. B. Preservers of Greco-Roman Culture
    • Significance of copying manuscripts
    • The role of Pope Gregory I
    • --had been secular Roman administrator
    • Realized early on that no help would be forthcoming from the Byzantine Empire
    • Church split in 1054
  • 21. C. Spiritual Protection
    • Superstitious, illiterate age
    • The Church was the door to salvation
    • Seven Deadly sins: pride, envy, anger, greed, lust, gluttony, and sloth
    • Seven sacraments
    • Sacraments of ordination and extreme unction
  • 22. C. Spiritual Protection (cont)
    • Sacrament of Matrimony
    • Sacrament of the Eucharist
    • -- “transubstantiation”
    • Duties and categories of the clergy
    • -- “regular” vs. “secular” clergy
    • The Sacrament of Penance
    • -- “Purgatory”
  • 23. C. Spiritual Protection (cont)
    • The Power of “Holy” Intercessors
    • Veneration of the Saints
    • Shift in the pattern of sainthood into the Middle Ages
    • The growing importance of female saints
    • --In 1100, only 10% of saints were female; by 15 th Century, 29% were female
  • 24. C. Spiritual Protection (cont)
    • The cultural power of calling on saints for help
    • The Supernatural power of Relics
    • Christian burial near the Church altar
  • 25. IV. Feudalism and Vassalage
  • 26. A. Physical Protection
    • The origins of feudalism
    • The lord as the central figure of the feudal system
    • The expense of medieval warfare
    • Contractual nature of feudalism
    • The local and emotional nature of feudalism
  • 27. A. Physical Protection (cont)
    • The lord’s obligations to his vassal
    • -- fief
    • The vassal’s obligations to his lord
    • -- scutage
    • The complexity of feudal relationships
    • -- “subinfeudation”
    • -- liege lord
  • 28. B. Life in a Medieval Castle
    • William Manchester’s A World Lit by Fire and Joseph and Frances Gies’ Life in a Medieval Castle
    • Interior and furnishings of the castle
    • Servants in the castle
  • 29. B. Life in a Medieval Castle (cont)
    • Daily routine and dining
    • The marriage of aristocratic women
    • The life of aristocratic women
    • The church’s view of women
    • Women and sex
    • The early life of young noblemen
    • The ceremony of knighthood
  • 30. B. Life in a Medieval Castle (cont)
    • The travels of the young knight
    • Tournaments and Jousts
    • Tension surrounding the life of a young knight
    • The ideal of chivalry
    • -- “troubadours”
  • 31. V. Manorialism
  • 32. A. Function
    • Western Europe was much more rural than Eastern Europe
    • Manorialism was the economic foundation of feudal society
    • The “open field” system of medieval farming
    • Origin and status of serfdom
    • By 800 AD, nearly 60% of western Europe was enserfed
  • 33. A. Function (cont)
    • Composition and administration of the manor
    • “ Custom of the Manor”
    • Tax obligations of the serfs
    • -- “banalities”
    • Other limitations on the activities of the serfs
  • 34. B. Life in a Medieval Village
    • Living conditions of the serfs
    • Striking lack of privacy for family members
    • Variety of dietary options for peasants
    • The central role of bread in the peasant diet—80% of caloric content
  • 35. B. Life in a Medieval Village (cont)
    • Types of meals eaten by villagers
    • Beer: the universal drink of northern Europe
    • Accidents as a way of life in manorial villages
    • The role of women and village clothing
    • Medieval view of children
  • 36. B. Life in a Medieval Village (cont)
    • Center of manorial life was the village church
    • Village church services
    • Life was short and frightening for village peasants
    • Village life was strictly hierarchical
    • Village life was also very communal
    • Village life was always very local