1. How long did the Byzantine Empire last and who conquered it?• It lasted from about 500 to 1453 c.e.• The Ottoman Turks conquered it.
6.2 Constantinople1. Why was Constantinople ideally locatedto be the capital of the Byzantine Empire?Constantinople was easy to defend and it lay atthe crossroads of many sea and overland traderoutes linking east and west. (located betweenEurope and Asia.)
6.2 Constantinople 2. What were some of Constantinople’s main features?Constantinople was surrounded by water on threesides and fortified by miles of walls withWatchtowers and gates. A large chain protected themouth of its harbor. The city had a sewer system,hospitals, homes for the elderly, and orphanages.
6.2 Constantinople3. What was daily life like in Constantinople?Life in Constantinople was more advanced than inwestern Europe. The city’s language and culturewere Greek, but traders and visitors spoke manylanguages. Most people lived in poverty. Manypeople attended chariot races. The emperor gavebread to the unemployed, who did public works inexchange.
6.3 The Reign of Justinian I1. What event forced Justinian to startrebuilding parts of Constantinople?Large parts of the city were ruined when fighting inthe Hippodrome spilled into the streets andescalated into a rebellion.
6.3 The Reign of Justinian I2. What were some of the improvements madeto Constantinople as a result of Justinian’spublic works projects? New bridges, public baths, parks, roads, and hospitals were built. In addition, the Hagia Sophia, a grand cathedral, was built.
6.3 The Reign of Justinian I3. How has Justinian’s Code affectedthe modern world?Justinian’s Code is the basis for many legalcodes in the western world.
6.4 The Eastern Orthodox Church1. What was the relationship betweenreligion and government in theByzantine Empire?Religion and government were closely linked.The emperor was believed to be both the headof the government and the living representativeof Jesus Christ.
6.4 The Eastern Orthodox Church2. How did the Eastern Orthodox Churchplay a central role in the daily life ofByzantines? Most people attended church regularly and received sacraments at every stage of their lives. Monasteries and convents cared for the poor and sick.
6.5 Conflict Between East and West1. Why did Byzantine emperor Leo III forbidthe use of icons in 730? How did the popereact to Leo’s order? Leo III believed that people were wrongly worshiping the icons themselves. Pope Gregory III excommunicated the emperor.
6.5 Conflict Between East and West2. What event in 800 increasedtensions between the east and west?In 800, Leo crowned Charlemagne, theking of the Franks, as Holy Romanemperor. This outraged the Byzantines,who felt they were the rightful rulers ofthe Roman Empire.
6.5 Conflict Between East and West3. How did the relationship between theEastern Orthodox Church and the RomanCatholic Church change in 1054?In 1054, a schism, or formal division, resulted inthe Eastern Orthodox Church and the RomanCatholic Church becoming two separateChristian churches.