Ch. 6: The Byzantine Empire


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Note: Quiz on Ch. 5 and 6 on Monday 11/14/2011

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Ch. 6: The Byzantine Empire

  1. 1. CHAPTER 6 The Byzantine Empire <ul><li>I. Capital City of Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>A. Site was chosen for its location </li></ul><ul><li>1. Surrounded by water on 3 sides, it was easy to defend </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Became a trading center for Europe and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>1. Became the richest city in the region </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>C. Technological advances made it an attractive place to live </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sewer system kept water clean </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hospitals, orphanages, & homes for the elderly improved peoples ’ lives </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unemployed people performed public services for food rations </li></ul>Home of Anthemius His mansions were turned into a home for the elderly.
  4. 5. <ul><li>D. Chariot races entertained everyone </li></ul><ul><li>1. Team rivalries sometimes erupted into street violence </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>II. The Reign of Emperor Justinian I </li></ul><ul><li>A. He ruled from 527 to 565 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Chariot race violence brought about a rebellion that destroyed Constantinople </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>C. He rebuilt the city with huge works projects </li></ul><ul><li>1. New bridges, public baths, parks, roads, & hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>2. New churches, like Hagia Sophia </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>D. Created systematic body of laws, known as Justinian ’s Code </li></ul><ul><li>1. Revised ancient Roman laws </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gave women right to own property </li></ul>
  8. 9. Justinian expanded borders and re-conquered much of old Empire:
  9. 10. III. The Eastern Orthodox Church
  10. 11. <ul><li>Based on beliefs dating back to Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantines saw the emperor as both a religious leader and a head of state </li></ul><ul><li>Church played critical role in peoples ’ daily lives </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>D. Orthodox clergy had ranks, like Catholics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor had all religious authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriarch of Constantinople was next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other patriarchs were equal to him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bishops served under the patriarchs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priests served under patriarchs and bishops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a. Priests could marry, but bishops could not </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>E. Liturgy , or mass, was recited by both priests and worshippers </li></ul><ul><li>1. Worshippers prayed to many saints </li></ul>a. Saint Basil promoted charity work b. Saint Cyril created the Cyrillic alphabet
  13. 14. Cyrillic Alphabet:
  14. 15. <ul><li>2. Icons were a common feature of the Orthodox churches </li></ul><ul><li>a. Christ the Pantocrator (ruler of all) </li></ul><ul><li>b. Mary, the mother of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>c. Icons helped bring Orthodox Christians closer to God </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>IV. Conflict between Eastern and Western Churches </li></ul><ul><li>A. Eastern (Orthodox) Christianity was influenced by Greek heritage & customs </li></ul><ul><li>1. Language of Constantinople was Greek </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>B. Western (Roman Catholic) Christianity was influenced by Frankish & Germanic cultures </li></ul><ul><li>1. Latin was the common language </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>C. Popes emerged as powerful figures in the west </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Orthodox Church resisted the popes ’ claims of religious authority </li></ul><ul><li>E. Three disagreements led to final split </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>1. Emperor Leo III banned icons from Byzantine churches, angering pope </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>2. Pope Leo III named Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, angering the Byzantines, who already had named Empress Irene </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>3. In 1054 C.E., Patriarch Cerularius ordered the closing of all Byzantine Churches still using western rites </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>a. Pope Leo IX issued a papal bull , ordering Cerularius to be excommunicated </li></ul>b. Schism (split) became permanent