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  1. 1. WWII1939-1945<br />
  2. 2. Blitzkrieg Unleashed<br />GermanPlane: Jonker 87 Stuka Dive Bomber<br />Aftermath of Bombing Raid<br />
  3. 3. Polish Defense<br />
  4. 4. The War Begins<br />
  5. 5. Early Axis Victories: 1939<br />Germany invades Poland: falls in less than 6 weeks<br />USA begins Cash and Carry program: nations must pay first and provide own transport for goods<br />After Poland…what’s next?<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. France and England declare war on Germany: Set up defense instead of attacking<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Was the Maginot Line Successful?<br />
  10. 10. Early Axis Victories: 1940<br />After Poland, period of waiting known as sitzkrieg takes place. <br />Early spring Denmark, Norway, Belgium and Netherlands (the lowlands) defeated…sitzkrieg over<br />France defeated in 6 weeks<br />British troops escape at Dunkirk; nearly defeated<br />Japan successfully attacks French Indochina. <br />Prime Minister Winston Churchill<br />
  11. 11. Dunkirk<br />
  12. 12. Miracle at Dunkirk<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwtwo_movies_bombers/index.shtml<br />
  15. 15. Was Blitzkrieg Effective?<br /><ul><li>"When the dive-bombers come down, they (the French) stood it for two hours and then ran with their hands over their ears.“
  16. 16. "Sedan fell as a result of a bombardment….it was a superb example of military surprise.“
  17. 17. "The pace is too fast……it’s the co-operation between the dive-bombers and the tanks that is winning the war for Germany.“
  18. 18. "News that the Germans are in Amiens…this is like some ridiculous nightmare."</li></li></ul><li>Battle of Britain 1940-41<br />Germany attempts to invade the British Isle (operation sea lion)<br />Turns Luftwaffe loose<br />British cities heavily bombed<br />Citizens take cover in subway tunnels<br />Protected by radar<br />
  19. 19. Battle of Britain 1940-41<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Battle of Britain 1940-41<br />“Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few”<br />British Royal Air Force (RAF) uses radar to great advantage<br />Britain never invaded<br />
  22. 22. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_wwtwo_movies_bombers.shtml<br />
  23. 23. Operation Barbarossa 1941-45<br />Hitler grows frustrated with Britain<br />In need of Lebensraum: living space<br />Seeks other prize: Soviet Union<br />Great Breadbasket<br />in order to remain healthy, species must continually expand the amount of space they occupy ...'<br />
  24. 24. Breaks non-aggression pact<br />Hitler unleashes Wehrmacht: uses most of best troops<br />3,000,000 Axis troops march into Soviet Union<br />“when the attack on Russia starts the world will hold its breath.”<br />
  25. 25. Overconfidence?<br />“We have only to kick in the front door and the whole rotten Russian edifice will come tumbling down.” (Hitler)<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Costly Mistake<br />Poorly planned operation<br />Soviets caught by surprise, but able to defend: scorched earth policy announced by Stalin<br />Hitler’s troops can’t handle Russian winter<br />Soldiers froze, supply lines broke down, equipment wouldn’t operate<br />Loses 50% his army<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
  31. 31. American Neutrality Changes 1941<br />USA changes policy from Cash and Carry to Lend Lease<br />Why?<br />President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill agree upon Atlantic Charter: belief that war is being fought to preserve and ensure democratic ideals throughout world<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Axis in the Pacific<br />Japan wishes to dominate all of Asia <br />Japan led by Hidecki Tojo and Emperor Hirohito<br />Tojo<br />Hirohito<br />
  34. 34. Pearl Harbor<br />USA places embargo on Japan: oil and steel sales cut off<br />Japan must knock out naval base in Hawaii<br />Pacific will be theirs to dominate<br />
  35. 35. Pearl Harbor<br />
  36. 36. Pearl Harbor Attack<br />USA ignored several warnings<br />Japan breaks off diplomatic ties in December<br />Attack planned/led by Admiral Yamamoto <br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Pearl Harbor Results<br />Over 2,300 servicemen dead<br />5 battleships sunk<br />Several other ships badly damaged<br />USS Arizona suffers greatest losses <br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. “Yesterday, December 7th, 1941 a date which will live in infamy”…<br />
  41. 41. The Allies Strike Back: 1942<br /><ul><li>Germany and Italy control most of Europe
  42. 42. Britain and Soviet Union free and fighting back
  43. 43. USA joins Allies and felt Germany must be the focus</li></li></ul><li>The Allies Strike Back<br />Allies fully involved in Operation Torch-<br />USA/UK operation to take back North Africa from Italy and Germany. <br />Important: <br />oil fields of Middle East—fuel essential for military<br />supply lines connecting Britain and India <br />General Dwight Eisenhower named Supreme Allied Commander of Allied forces in Africa/Europe<br />Top military post of all British, USA, France etc.<br />Italy “Soft Underbelly” of the Axis<br />Weakest, most vulnerable of the 3<br />
  44. 44. Battle of El Alamein<br />What problems can you see fighting in this harsh environment?<br />
  45. 45. What problems can you see fighting in this environment?<br /><ul><li>Heat
  46. 46. Lack of vision
  47. 47. Equipment breaks down
  48. 48. Difficult to breath
  49. 49. Traveling through desert sands is slow</li></li></ul><li>Victory at El Alamein: May 1943<br />Vs.<br />Field Marshall Erwin Rommel leads Afrika Corps (The Desert Fox)<br />General Bernard Montgomery (Monty)<br />Allied win opened up possibility of attacking Italy<br />
  50. 50. The Allies Strike Back: 1943<br />Italian campaign begins in Sicily and works its way up the boot towards Rome <br />Italy gives up and imprisons Mussolini; no longer in power, but German troops move in to fight. <br />Fierce battle at Anzio<br />Rome taken in June of 44’.<br />Anzio.<br />
  51. 51. The Allies Strike Back: 1943<br />Tehran (Iran) Conference held-FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet and finalize plans:<br />Agreed that the U.S. and Britain should attack across the English Channel<br />USSR wanted immediate attack to help split German forces. <br />Soviets felt they were being forced to bear excessive burden vs. Germany<br />US and UK waited to build up forces. <br />USSR promises to help versus Japan after Germany’s defeated<br />Churchill, (U.K.) FDR, (U.S.A) Stalin, (U.S.S.R)<br />
  52. 52. The Allies Strike Back: 1944<br />Operation Overlord (June 6th, ‘44) famously known as D-Day<br />D stands for nothing…variable that depends on various factors like the weather to determine when a mission will take place<br />Allies attack coast of France w/ 150,000 troops and 4,600 boats<br />Operation aimed to liberate France and then defeating Germany itself.<br />German army was taken by surprise, they expected the attack to come from further north in Calais.<br />Deception campaign<br />Inflatable tanks and planes, fake military orders leaked to Nazi’s etc.<br />By July Allies had landed 1million men+<br />
  53. 53. Nazis expected attack here.<br />
  54. 54. What countries participated?<br />
  55. 55. Normandy Beach Scene: 1st month<br />
  56. 56. Battle of the Bulge: 1944<br />Last counterattack made by Germany in Dec, 1944<br />Luxembourg/Belgium border<br />Surprised Allied forces<br />Largest land battle of war…over 1 million soldiers!<br />
  57. 57. The Allies Strike Back: 1945<br />Allies push towards Germany from all sides and horror over the Holocaust becoming very evident in Poland and Eastern Germany<br />
  58. 58. The Final Solution<br />
  59. 59. Holocaust<br />Who was involved?<br />Jews, gypsies, mentally and physically disabled, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses etc.<br />
  60. 60. Holocaust<br />What were the results?<br />Estimated 12,000,000 people died<br />2/3 of all European Jews executed<br />½ of all executed were Jewish<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62. Holocaust<br />Why is so much known about the holocaust?<br />General Eisenhower carefully documented activities at camps<br />Why?<br />
  63. 63.
  64. 64. What is being shown in the pictures?<br />Why did the Nazi's take these items?<br />
  65. 65. What is being shown in the pictures? Sacks of gold<br />Why did the Nazi's take these items? Pay for war expenses<br />
  66. 66.
  67. 67.
  68. 68. Yalta Conference: 1945<br />Yalta Conference held—FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet and finalize plans for end of war: <br />Germany to be split into 4 zones <br />Poland boundary redrawn, <br />USSR gets Kurile Islands in exchange for help against Japan<br />
  69. 69. 1932 vs. 1945<br />
  70. 70. Tragedy Strikes!<br />Reluctantly ran for 4th term in office<br />Physically and mentally tired<br />April 1945, FDR dies suddenly after complaining of a headache in Warm Springs, GA retreat<br />
  71. 71. Harry Who?<br />Harry who?<br />What am I getting myself into?<br />Harry Truman takes office. <br />New Vice President… replaced Henry Wallace<br />“Hick from Missouri”<br />Kept in dark of key ideas including: Manhattan Project<br />
  72. 72. Germany Collapses<br />Russians and Americans advance into Berlin<br />Last days spent inside Berlin Bunker with Eva Braun and his dog Blondi<br />I’m the luckiest girl in the world to be having dinner with a man like Hitler<br />
  73. 73. Welcome to Berlin<br />
  74. 74.
  75. 75. Germany Collapses<br />Hitler weds Eva Braun<br />Commits suicide next day (4/30/45)<br />
  76. 76. War Ends in Europe<br />V-E Day (May 8, 1945)-- Victory in Europe Day: Germany surrenders<br />
  77. 77.
  78. 78.
  79. 79. Bataan Death March<br />Takeover of Philippines<br />15,000-20,000 American troops marched 65 miles<br />Intense heat<br />No provisions<br />Listen to survivor’s experience!<br />
  80. 80.
  81. 81. Thousands of Americans and Filipinos killed at the hands of the Japanese<br />
  82. 82.
  83. 83. USA Defeated<br />forced General Douglas MacArthur to leave Philippines—“I Shall Return”<br />
  84. 84. The Allies Strike Back: 1942<br />Americans turn tide of Pacific fighting:<br />Coral Sea (May)<br />Midway (June)<br />
  85. 85. Coral Sea <br />
  86. 86. Battle of Coral Sea: May 1942<br />Japan intends to invade Australia<br />Engage in battle with USA<br />1st Carrier battle in history<br />Removed threat to Oceania<br />Admiral Chester Nimitz: Head of Pacific Fleet<br />USS Lexington<br />USS Yorktown<br />
  87. 87. Carriers<br />U.S.S. Yorktown<br />Severely damaged: thought 90 days to repair<br />Turned tide at Midway days later!<br />Japanese hadn’t planned on Yorktown’s resources being available<br />U.S.S. Lexington<br />Destroyed<br />
  88. 88. Battle of Midway: June 1942<br />(James) DoolittleRaids: bomb Tokyo from carrier based at Midway<br />Japan’s 1st taste of war at home<br />Psychological effect soon after Pearl Harbor<br />Showed we are still a force and your day is coming<br />Midway base destroyed but USA carriers destroy 4 Japanese carriers <br />Turning point in Pacific Fighting<br />Japanese offensive capability crushed: all carriers destroyed<br />Elite unit Japanese Zero Fighters lost<br />Unable to replace materials and skilled pilots, mechanics and commanders<br />
  89. 89.
  90. 90.
  91. 91. Island Hopping Campaign<br />Victories provided key to launching attacks<br />Random efforts to free Japanese held islands<br />Cut off supplies from Japan<br />Left to “die on the vine”<br />War over for many years before some isolated soldiers realized<br />Dug in in Iwo Jima and Okinawa<br />Foreshadowed what invasion of Japan might be like<br />Impacted our decision to use atomic bomb<br />
  92. 92.
  93. 93.
  94. 94. Raising the flag over Iwo Jima in the Marshall Islands<br />(Part of the island hopping)<br />
  95. 95. New Strategy<br />Resources scarce: planes, fuel, bombs, pilots etc.<br />Must maximize remaining stock<br />Banzai and Kamikaze attacks begin<br />Banzai-human suicide missions on the ground<br />Kamikaze-planes used as bombs <br />9/11 was not an original idea<br />
  96. 96.
  97. 97. Potsdam Conference: 1945<br />Potsdam Conference held-Truman, Churchill, and Stalin<br />Agree to concept of United Nations <br />Agree to use atomic bomb<br />Issue vague warning to Japan to surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction”<br />
  98. 98. Success: Manhattan Project <br />Urged by Einstein letter<br />Atomic bomb tested in NM<br />Dr. Robert Oppenheimer in charge<br />Moral dilemma for Truman<br />Drop bomb or alternate plan?<br />
  99. 99. Decision to drop the bomb<br />Consider the following questions from the video:<br />How big was the Manhattan Project? (people, $$, and locations)<br />What options did Truman have to end the fighting?<br />How were Nagasaki and Hiroshima chosen to be the targets?<br />Who opposed the use of the atomic bomb and why?<br />
  100. 100. War ends in the Pacific<br />2 atomic bombs are dropped over Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki<br />Little Boy (L) and Fat Man (R)<br />
  101. 101.
  102. 102.
  103. 103. War ends in the Pacific<br />VJ Day: August 15th 1945<br />Day that Japan Surrenders<br />
  104. 104.
  105. 105. Formal Treaty Signed<br />Douglas MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito sign treaty aboard USS Missouri<br />USA occupies Japan until 1951<br />New Constitution<br />Education Reform<br />Military deconstructed<br />