WW2
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WW2

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WW2 WW2 Presentation Transcript

  • WWII1939-1945
  • Blitzkrieg Unleashed
    GermanPlane: Jonker 87 Stuka Dive Bomber
    Aftermath of Bombing Raid
  • Polish Defense
  • The War Begins
  • Early Axis Victories: 1939
    Germany invades Poland: falls in less than 6 weeks
    USA begins Cash and Carry program: nations must pay first and provide own transport for goods
    After Poland…what’s next?
  • France and England declare war on Germany: Set up defense instead of attacking
  • Was the Maginot Line Successful?
  • Early Axis Victories: 1940
    After Poland, period of waiting known as sitzkrieg takes place.
    Early spring Denmark, Norway, Belgium and Netherlands (the lowlands) defeated…sitzkrieg over
    France defeated in 6 weeks
    British troops escape at Dunkirk; nearly defeated
    Japan successfully attacks French Indochina.
    Prime Minister Winston Churchill
  • Dunkirk
  • Miracle at Dunkirk
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwtwo_movies_bombers/index.shtml
  • Was Blitzkrieg Effective?
    • "When the dive-bombers come down, they (the French) stood it for two hours and then ran with their hands over their ears.“
    • "Sedan fell as a result of a bombardment….it was a superb example of military surprise.“
    • "The pace is too fast……it’s the co-operation between the dive-bombers and the tanks that is winning the war for Germany.“
    • "News that the Germans are in Amiens…this is like some ridiculous nightmare."
  • Battle of Britain 1940-41
    Germany attempts to invade the British Isle (operation sea lion)
    Turns Luftwaffe loose
    British cities heavily bombed
    Citizens take cover in subway tunnels
    Protected by radar
  • Battle of Britain 1940-41
  • Battle of Britain 1940-41
    “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few”
    British Royal Air Force (RAF) uses radar to great advantage
    Britain never invaded
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_wwtwo_movies_bombers.shtml
  • Operation Barbarossa 1941-45
    Hitler grows frustrated with Britain
    In need of Lebensraum: living space
    Seeks other prize: Soviet Union
    Great Breadbasket
    in order to remain healthy, species must continually expand the amount of space they occupy ...'
  • Breaks non-aggression pact
    Hitler unleashes Wehrmacht: uses most of best troops
    3,000,000 Axis troops march into Soviet Union
    “when the attack on Russia starts the world will hold its breath.”
  • Overconfidence?
    “We have only to kick in the front door and the whole rotten Russian edifice will come tumbling down.” (Hitler)
  • Costly Mistake
    Poorly planned operation
    Soviets caught by surprise, but able to defend: scorched earth policy announced by Stalin
    Hitler’s troops can’t handle Russian winter
    Soldiers froze, supply lines broke down, equipment wouldn’t operate
    Loses 50% his army
  • American Neutrality Changes 1941
    USA changes policy from Cash and Carry to Lend Lease
    Why?
    President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill agree upon Atlantic Charter: belief that war is being fought to preserve and ensure democratic ideals throughout world
  • Axis in the Pacific
    Japan wishes to dominate all of Asia
    Japan led by Hidecki Tojo and Emperor Hirohito
    Tojo
    Hirohito
  • Pearl Harbor
    USA places embargo on Japan: oil and steel sales cut off
    Japan must knock out naval base in Hawaii
    Pacific will be theirs to dominate
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Pearl Harbor Attack
    USA ignored several warnings
    Japan breaks off diplomatic ties in December
    Attack planned/led by Admiral Yamamoto
  • Pearl Harbor Results
    Over 2,300 servicemen dead
    5 battleships sunk
    Several other ships badly damaged
    USS Arizona suffers greatest losses
  • “Yesterday, December 7th, 1941 a date which will live in infamy”…
  • The Allies Strike Back: 1942
    • Germany and Italy control most of Europe
    • Britain and Soviet Union free and fighting back
    • USA joins Allies and felt Germany must be the focus
  • The Allies Strike Back
    Allies fully involved in Operation Torch-
    USA/UK operation to take back North Africa from Italy and Germany.
    Important:
    oil fields of Middle East—fuel essential for military
    supply lines connecting Britain and India
    General Dwight Eisenhower named Supreme Allied Commander of Allied forces in Africa/Europe
    Top military post of all British, USA, France etc.
    Italy “Soft Underbelly” of the Axis
    Weakest, most vulnerable of the 3
  • Battle of El Alamein
    What problems can you see fighting in this harsh environment?
  • What problems can you see fighting in this environment?
    • Heat
    • Lack of vision
    • Equipment breaks down
    • Difficult to breath
    • Traveling through desert sands is slow
  • Victory at El Alamein: May 1943
    Vs.
    Field Marshall Erwin Rommel leads Afrika Corps (The Desert Fox)
    General Bernard Montgomery (Monty)
    Allied win opened up possibility of attacking Italy
  • The Allies Strike Back: 1943
    Italian campaign begins in Sicily and works its way up the boot towards Rome
    Italy gives up and imprisons Mussolini; no longer in power, but German troops move in to fight.
    Fierce battle at Anzio
    Rome taken in June of 44’.
    Anzio.
  • The Allies Strike Back: 1943
    Tehran (Iran) Conference held-FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet and finalize plans:
    Agreed that the U.S. and Britain should attack across the English Channel
    USSR wanted immediate attack to help split German forces.
    Soviets felt they were being forced to bear excessive burden vs. Germany
    US and UK waited to build up forces.
    USSR promises to help versus Japan after Germany’s defeated
    Churchill, (U.K.) FDR, (U.S.A) Stalin, (U.S.S.R)
  • The Allies Strike Back: 1944
    Operation Overlord (June 6th, ‘44) famously known as D-Day
    D stands for nothing…variable that depends on various factors like the weather to determine when a mission will take place
    Allies attack coast of France w/ 150,000 troops and 4,600 boats
    Operation aimed to liberate France and then defeating Germany itself.
    German army was taken by surprise, they expected the attack to come from further north in Calais.
    Deception campaign
    Inflatable tanks and planes, fake military orders leaked to Nazi’s etc.
    By July Allies had landed 1million men+
  • Nazis expected attack here.
  • What countries participated?
  • Normandy Beach Scene: 1st month
  • Battle of the Bulge: 1944
    Last counterattack made by Germany in Dec, 1944
    Luxembourg/Belgium border
    Surprised Allied forces
    Largest land battle of war…over 1 million soldiers!
  • The Allies Strike Back: 1945
    Allies push towards Germany from all sides and horror over the Holocaust becoming very evident in Poland and Eastern Germany
  • The Final Solution
  • Holocaust
    Who was involved?
    Jews, gypsies, mentally and physically disabled, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses etc.
  • Holocaust
    What were the results?
    Estimated 12,000,000 people died
    2/3 of all European Jews executed
    ½ of all executed were Jewish
  • Holocaust
    Why is so much known about the holocaust?
    General Eisenhower carefully documented activities at camps
    Why?
  • What is being shown in the pictures?
    Why did the Nazi's take these items?
  • What is being shown in the pictures? Sacks of gold
    Why did the Nazi's take these items? Pay for war expenses
  • Yalta Conference: 1945
    Yalta Conference held—FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet and finalize plans for end of war:
    Germany to be split into 4 zones
    Poland boundary redrawn,
    USSR gets Kurile Islands in exchange for help against Japan
  • 1932 vs. 1945
  • Tragedy Strikes!
    Reluctantly ran for 4th term in office
    Physically and mentally tired
    April 1945, FDR dies suddenly after complaining of a headache in Warm Springs, GA retreat
  • Harry Who?
    Harry who?
    What am I getting myself into?
    Harry Truman takes office.
    New Vice President… replaced Henry Wallace
    “Hick from Missouri”
    Kept in dark of key ideas including: Manhattan Project
  • Germany Collapses
    Russians and Americans advance into Berlin
    Last days spent inside Berlin Bunker with Eva Braun and his dog Blondi
    I’m the luckiest girl in the world to be having dinner with a man like Hitler
  • Welcome to Berlin
  • Germany Collapses
    Hitler weds Eva Braun
    Commits suicide next day (4/30/45)
  • War Ends in Europe
    V-E Day (May 8, 1945)-- Victory in Europe Day: Germany surrenders
  • Bataan Death March
    Takeover of Philippines
    15,000-20,000 American troops marched 65 miles
    Intense heat
    No provisions
    Listen to survivor’s experience!
  • Thousands of Americans and Filipinos killed at the hands of the Japanese
  • USA Defeated
    forced General Douglas MacArthur to leave Philippines—“I Shall Return”
  • The Allies Strike Back: 1942
    Americans turn tide of Pacific fighting:
    Coral Sea (May)
    Midway (June)
  • Coral Sea
  • Battle of Coral Sea: May 1942
    Japan intends to invade Australia
    Engage in battle with USA
    1st Carrier battle in history
    Removed threat to Oceania
    Admiral Chester Nimitz: Head of Pacific Fleet
    USS Lexington
    USS Yorktown
  • Carriers
    U.S.S. Yorktown
    Severely damaged: thought 90 days to repair
    Turned tide at Midway days later!
    Japanese hadn’t planned on Yorktown’s resources being available
    U.S.S. Lexington
    Destroyed
  • Battle of Midway: June 1942
    (James) DoolittleRaids: bomb Tokyo from carrier based at Midway
    Japan’s 1st taste of war at home
    Psychological effect soon after Pearl Harbor
    Showed we are still a force and your day is coming
    Midway base destroyed but USA carriers destroy 4 Japanese carriers
    Turning point in Pacific Fighting
    Japanese offensive capability crushed: all carriers destroyed
    Elite unit Japanese Zero Fighters lost
    Unable to replace materials and skilled pilots, mechanics and commanders
  • Island Hopping Campaign
    Victories provided key to launching attacks
    Random efforts to free Japanese held islands
    Cut off supplies from Japan
    Left to “die on the vine”
    War over for many years before some isolated soldiers realized
    Dug in in Iwo Jima and Okinawa
    Foreshadowed what invasion of Japan might be like
    Impacted our decision to use atomic bomb
  • Raising the flag over Iwo Jima in the Marshall Islands
    (Part of the island hopping)
  • New Strategy
    Resources scarce: planes, fuel, bombs, pilots etc.
    Must maximize remaining stock
    Banzai and Kamikaze attacks begin
    Banzai-human suicide missions on the ground
    Kamikaze-planes used as bombs
    9/11 was not an original idea
  • Potsdam Conference: 1945
    Potsdam Conference held-Truman, Churchill, and Stalin
    Agree to concept of United Nations
    Agree to use atomic bomb
    Issue vague warning to Japan to surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction”
  • Success: Manhattan Project
    Urged by Einstein letter
    Atomic bomb tested in NM
    Dr. Robert Oppenheimer in charge
    Moral dilemma for Truman
    Drop bomb or alternate plan?
  • Decision to drop the bomb
    Consider the following questions from the video:
    How big was the Manhattan Project? (people, $$, and locations)
    What options did Truman have to end the fighting?
    How were Nagasaki and Hiroshima chosen to be the targets?
    Who opposed the use of the atomic bomb and why?
  • War ends in the Pacific
    2 atomic bombs are dropped over Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    Little Boy (L) and Fat Man (R)
  • War ends in the Pacific
    VJ Day: August 15th 1945
    Day that Japan Surrenders
  • Formal Treaty Signed
    Douglas MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito sign treaty aboard USS Missouri
    USA occupies Japan until 1951
    New Constitution
    Education Reform
    Military deconstructed