Do Now: Comment on the followingidea, for governments, war solvesproblems of control.World War II
Do Now: Who was prepared forwar?A. In Student Handout 1.1:1. Which government spent the most on armaments(weapons) in 1940, 1941,1943?2. Why was the Axis alliance spending more in 1940and 1941? Why did the Allied governments spendmore in 1943?B. In Student Handout 1.2:1. In 1937, which three governments spent thelargest percentage of their budgets on defense?Which government spent the smallest percentageon defense?2. Using the data in all the tables, briefly explain theglobal context for armaments production andgovernment budgets for defense from the end of
German Aggression: Hitler ViolatesTreaty How did Hitler break the Treaty ofVersailles? Hitler wants to “revisit” Treaty ofVersailles Why were France and Great Britainoriginally passive towards Germanaggression?• Pro move: Map on page #857
Appeasement March 7, 1936 Rhineland“demilitarized” zone“They’re going into their own backgarden.”
New Alliances 1935 Mussolini wants to re-create RomanEmpire, invades Ethiopia 1936 Germany/Italy assist Franco in Spanish CivilWar November 1936 Anti-Comintern Pact: commonfront against communism Anschluss March 13, 1938
Demands and Appeasement September 15, 1938 Sudetenland Munich Conference “Peace in our time!” March 1939 invade Bohemia & Moravia (W.Czech) Demands Polish port of Danzig
The Japanese Path toWarQuestion:What fueled the needfor the Japanese plan to seizeother territories?
Answer: Resources Think back to primary source packet with:Tanaka, Hitler and Stalin Big Idea: Industrialized nations require naturalresources to continue at their current pace and togrow What happens if you don’t have natural resources inyour own country, like Japan and Great Britain?
How is Japan going to get territoryneeded to maintain industry? Expansionist Policy: (class definition) Mukden Incident September 18, 1931 Japandisguised as Chinese soldiers blew up railway inJapanese territory to justify taking over all ofManchuria Manchukuo puppet ruler 1932
How does the world viewJapanese expansion? What does the League ofNations do/say? Manchurian Policy USAdoesn’t do anything,condemnation abroad,nationalism at home Next four years: controlinner Mongolia and areasof North China aroundBeijing
War with China Chiang Kai-Shek nationalist ruler moreconcerned about Communists (Remember Mao) Appeases Japan, allowed to govern area in NorthChina December 1936 Chiang ended military effortsagainst Communists and formed a new unitedfront against Japan July 1937 clash south of Beijing Japan seized Chinese capital of Nanjing Rape ofNanjing
New Asian Order Japan, Manchuria and China Japan would teach Asian how to modernize Sounds like Nazi Germany, link creates bond Japan wants Soviet Serbia, but refrains, why?
Japanese Conundrum Japan looks South, because of Nazi Soviet Non-Aggression Pact What’s South and who is in control? Summer 1940 demand French Indochina USA: economic sanctions, which Japan fearsb/c of the need for oil and scrap iron Japan: if we have access to Indochina and therest of Southeast Asia, we won’t need Americanresources…
What Were the Causes of WorldWar II?Textbook page #862-863Read all three primary sources and answer documentbased questions. (This may help if you missedThursday 6 June)
Edging Towards War The Lend-Lease Act The US could lend orlease arms to cancountry considered“vital to the defense ofthe USA” Example: GreatBritain Hemispheric DefenseZone US Navy would patrolthe Western half ofthe Atlantic Oceanand report German
Japanese Strategy Three PhasesPhase I: Surprise attacks, thenstrategic defense.Knock out US fleet; seize vitalareas; establish defensiveperimeter.Phase II: Strengthen perimeter;make any offensive action by theUS prohibitively costly.Phase III: Defeat and destroy anyforces that attempt to penetratethe perimeter.
Pearl Harbor Dec. 7th, 1941 Surprise attack by theJapanese Sank or damaged 21ships (including 8battleships) Destroyed 188airplanes Killed 2,403Americans Injured 1,178Americans
Fleet Admiral YamamotoFleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto“The US fleet is a dagger pointed atour throat and must be destroyed.”“I can run wild for six months,afterthat, I have no expectation ofsuccess.”- Yamamoto, duringdiscussions on the planned PearlHarbour Attack
Japanese-American Relocation Feb. 19th, 1942 – FDR signedan order that allowed the Wardepartment to declare any partof the US to be a military zoneand remove anybody theywanted from that zone. Secretary of War HenryStimson declared most of theWest Coast a military zone andordered all people of Japaneseancestry into 10 internmentCamps Korematsu v. the United States The Supreme Court ruled thatthe relocation was legalbecause it was based on“military urgency” and not race. Ex Parte Endo – The SupremeCourt ruled that loyal Americanscan not be held against theirwill.
Island Hopping A term used to describe the fighting in the Pacific U.S. and Japan would go from island to islandfighting for control Japan controlled most of the islands in the Pacific U.S. picked strategic islands to fight for--Why?
Coral Sea First major Naval battle First time ever two powers fought without seeingeach other South Pacific--Northeast of Australia Battle was considered a draw but moral victory forU.S. Stopped Japanese advancement
Midway Island in Pacific Turning point of the war--June 1942 U.S. showed the Japanese a false move and theJapanese wanted to capitalize Four carriers for Japan sank Turning point
Guadalcanal—8/42-2/43 Who: US vs. Japan Where: Island near Australia—one of Solomon Islands What: One of the most vicious campaigns Japanese put up a fierce resistance US has superior air and naval power Results: First time US land troops defeat Japanese Americans are able to secure the island
Leyte Gulf The biggest and greatest naval battle ever Philippines-- 1944 The Japanese sent nearly every ship to fight U.S. fought a heavy battle Japan takes the greatest casualties and nearlyloses every ship Kamikaze raids begin
Iwo Jima and Okinawa Islands in the Pacific--North Northwest of Guam Feb. 1945 and April 1945 What was the island like? The island took over two months to secure Heavy casualties for both sides Site of the famous Marines raising flag
European Theater Nazi Occupied most of the European continentfor almost 4 years May of 1940- summer of1944. Hitler goal was gain territory to createLebensraum or “living space” for the Third Reich.
German Invasion ofFrance Phony War- After France, GreatBritain and Germany declared waron each other no fighting tookplace for 10 months. Both sides prepared for war.Fortified troops along the Maginotline. May 10, 1940 after 10 months ofreadying Germany attackedFrance and the Low countries. France only able to hold out for 2weeks before partial surrender.Vichy government Hitler’s puppetgovernment, and Free Frenchgovernment. Germany 130 infantry and 10 tankdivisions France only 40 infantry
Battle of BritainSummer of 1940 Rescue from Dunkirk Followed Battle of theAtlantic. Complete Air war-August1940 - May 1941. Radar was key to Britishsuccess. Germany failed to knock outGB. Arguably the biggestmistake by Hitler of WWII,Great Britain becamestaging ground for alliedinvasion of Nazi occupiedEurope. Churchill vowed “never tosurrender” & “finest hour”speech.
German Invasionof USSR(June, 22 1941) Operation Barbarossa Hitler believed he hadcrippled the Allied powersenough in the West, he nowturned his troops toward theEast and attacked USSR. Cold Winter, would not retreatcostly for Germany. Stalingrad (August 1942) -->Germany had taken over citywith house to house battles. Russian counter-attackbecame the turning point inwar, with Soviets taking backStalingrad.
Allied invasion ofNorth Africa (August1942-April 1943) Africa/Mid East astronghold for oil. British troops underGeneral Montgomerywon decisive battle at ElAlamein and pushedGermany (Erwin Rommel“Desert Fox”) towardU.S. troops underGeneral Patton “caughtin the pinchers: 250,000 German POWstaken.
Allied invasion of Sicily and Italy(July of 1943) Goal to take back Nazioccupied Europe was tocatch the German andremaining Italian troopsin the pinchers. Upthrough Italy and downfrom Northern Europe. Allied troops led byPatton and Montgomeryforced Axis powers out ofItaly. Not many troopscaptured, most retreated.
D-DAY “Under Belly” strategyfailed North Africa/Italy Operation Overlord June 6th, 1944 Massive Invasion ofFrance Forced Germany tofight a 3 Front War Italy, France, Russia
German Retreat After Stalingrad – theRussians continued topush the Germans outof Russia through1943 until the end ofthe war in 1945.
Liberation of France/ParisAugust 25th, 1944 After D-day , allied troopsmoved quickly to pushback Nazi occupiedEurope. By August 1944, much ofFrance had been takenback. By the end of AugustU.S. and Free Frenchtroops led by Charles deGaulle liberated Paris.
Battle of the Bulge (Fall 1944-Dec 1944) Beginning of the endfor Hitler andGermany. Hitler’s last majoroffensive, trying to getto port of Antwerpthrough ArdennesForest, this created abulge in the Alliedlines. General Patton’s Armypushed back Germanyin the dead of winter of
Battle of Berlin April 1945 The Soviet Army was about to take the city of Berlin(the German Capital). Hitler and his close associates operated theGerman War effort out of a bunker from Jan to April1945. Underneath of the Chancellor’s Office 55 ft below ground Hitler totally lost control of reality Directed non-existent armies
The Last Days of Hitler April 22, 1945 Declared the German people failed him April 29, 1945 Married Eva Braun April 30, 1945 Hitler and Eva both committed suicide Both bodies burned
Allies take Berlin:VE Day (May 8th 1945)*See Handout Soviet and U.S. surroundGermany. Question was whichcountry would take Berlin.Soviets took Berlin in April1945. April 30th 1945 Hitlercommits suicide May 7th 1945 Germanysurrendered. May 8th VE day.
German Surrender Battle of Berlin Hitler committed suicideon April 30th, 1945 The city surrendered onMay 2nd, 1945 to theSoviet Red Army German Surrender Grand Admiral KarlDoenitz(new leader ofGermany) agreed to theunconditional surrender May 7th, 1945 – theunconditional surrenderis signed by Germany
The War Ends Iowa Jima American bombers can now hit mainland Japanfrom air bases on the island The Manhattan Project US secret project to make the atomic bomb The Decision to drop the bomb President FDR died and Vice President Harry S.Truman became President Decided to drop the bomb for the following reasons: Japan Surrenders V-J Day *See Handout