World War One. Conclusions and Restoring Peace


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World War One. Conclusions and Restoring Peace

  1. 1.  In your groups come up with 3 or 4 points that your country would want for the treaty after the war. Reflect upon the hardships that your country faced.
  2. 2. After the carnage of WWI.
  3. 3.  First Americans landed in France in June 1917  Gen. Pershing kept his troops back until they could receive more training  Joined an American Expeditionary Force to preserve identity and avoid Allied disagreements over strategy
  4. 4.  American units helped block against Germans at several battles Sept. 12, 1918 half a million soldiers and a smaller number of French soldiers overran the German stronghold at Saint- Mihiel in 4 days
  5. 5.  French offensive stalled  Mutinies and desertions Flanders  British offensive, but Germans pushed them back further from where started Southern Front  Italians lost morale and started to desert
  6. 6.  Spring of 1918 allied troops under French General Ferdinand Foch  The Germans mounted their offensive  wanted to split the Allies and drive the British to the sea  came to within 37 miles of Paris before being stopped by the Allies  they were low on reserves and morale the Allies had high morale and high reserves because of the US entering the war  the Allied forces pushed the Germans back and slowly one by one the resistance of the Central Powers fell  November 11 at 11am the Germans signed the Armistice  The Germans had lost the war while its troops still held territory from France to the Crimean Peninsula
  7. 7.  Europe is shattered  Millions dead, more wounded  Country boundaries changed  People looked to President Woodrow Wilson for hope
  8. 8.  Germany saw that  Fourteen Points their time had come  Peace plan whose and they wanted an terms included armistice international They hoped that recognition of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 freedom of the seas and trade, limitations points would be used of arms, an end to all secret alliances  Settlements of colonial claims  General assembly of nations created
  9. 9.  Germany thought that the 14 points would be used in the peace process with them  Britain wanted control of the seas, didn’t want freedom of the seas  France wanted reparations (payment for damages) to be included in any and all peace settlements Allied leaders didn’t want them (14 points)  French Premier Clemenceau “President Wilson and his 14 points bore me. Even God Almighty has only 10.”
  10. 10.  116,500 Americans died 2.2 million Germans died 1.7 million Russians died 1.4 million French died 1.2 million Austro-Hungarians died 1 million British died Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919  Victims literally died in their own bodily fluids  1/50 died, generally ages 20-34 years of age  25 million died world wide
  11. 11.  Big Four= Pres. Wilson January 1919 delegates (US), Prime Minister from 27 nations gathered in Clemenceau (France), Paris to work out 5 Prime Minister David separate peace treaties Lloyd George (Britain), know as the Peace of Paris Prime Minister Vittorio Representatives from Orlando (Italy) Russia and the Triple Alliance were not invited  France and Britain actually funded against them in the Civil War
  12. 12.  The Germans had surrendered on the basis of Wilson’s 14 points, not knowing that the other sides had already divided Germany up in secret treaties  When Wilson threatened to negotiate peace on his own, finally Allies agreed to terms Britain refused to hear anything about freedom of seas, only Germany had to disarm, and a “guilt clause” made the Germans responsible to pay off all war debts
  13. 13.  German Punishments  Territorially  Military  Reduced and restricted  Army reduced,  Alsace-Lorraine conscription prohibited returned to France  Navy limited  Poland established  Forbidden to have an  Danzig freed air force or build  Barred from uniting weapons of aggression with other German speaking peoples  Stripped of colonial possessions
  14. 14.  Economically  Pay property damages, costs of the war and soldiers pensions of the French and British Signed in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles June 28, 1919  Only 4 of Wilson’s original 14 points and 9 supplemental principles emerged intact in the treaty  League of Nations  “It is definitely a guarantee of peace” -Pres. Wilson
  15. 15.  Separate peace treaties signed with Austria- Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey  Greatest attention was territorial  Broke up Austria and Hungary  Austria was left small and economically weak  Italy received from Austria territory near Brenner pass in the Alps  New nations emerged: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia  Considered the “cordon sanitaire” or quarantine line  France would use it as a buffer against any potential threat from Russia or Germany
  16. 16.  While most Americans favored the League of nations, Wilson’s rival (Henry Cabot Lodge) was against it  He was afraid the LON would force American to bend to the will of other nations March 3, 1919 Henry Cabot Lodge was able to get enough signatures to block the treaty  Wilson’s only hope was compromise  He went on campaign across the nation to tell people why it was necessary  In 1919 he gave the best speech of his life, then had a stroke from which he never fully recovered
  17. 17.  One of the major arguing points was Article X to aid League members, but Wilson refused to accept any changes March 1920 enough Democrats broke from the president to produce a majority, but not a required 2/3 The Treaty of Versailles was dead in the US. Not until July 1921 did Congress enact a joint resolution ending the war  The US which had fought separately from the allies, made separate peace as well
  18. 18.  Settlement left Europe and the world troubled Those who fought became the “lost generation” Peace settlements failed to heal old wounds and opened new ones as well No freedom of the seas Economic barriers not lowered Only defeated powers were required to disarm Provisions against Germany were too harsh to expect reconciliation with Britain and France, but not harsh enough to destroy Germany completely
  19. 19.  How did/does your country feel as a result of the treaties? Were there any common goals? Were compromises made? Which country was most pleased with how the negotiations turned out? Most displeased? Does your country feel it achieved its most important goals? Were there any particular impasses or impediments to agreements?
  20. 20.  May Day 1919 six months after the war ended mobs in a dozen cities broke up socialist parades, injured hundreds and killed 3 people Many Americans believed they were under attack by homegrown and foreign-sponsored radicals  Menace of radicalism was overblown Radicals hoped that the success of the Russian Revolution would lead to better feelings in the US  Most Americans found the idea of Bolsheviks threatening
  21. 21.  1919 the left split  Radical socialists formed the Communist Labor party  Slavic radicals created a separate Communist party  Together they had no more than 40,000 members April 28, 1919 Mayor Hanson received a small parcel which he thought was from an admirer of his tough patriotism  Homemade bomb  20 such packages were sent (including to J. D. Rockafeller, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and the postmaster general )
  22. 22.  June 2 bombs exploded simultaneously in 8 different cities  One demolished the front porch of A. Mitchell Palmer, the attorney general of the US  Bomb thrower was blown to bits but enough of him remained for identification  Italian anarchist from Philadelphia  Americans assumed that an organized conspiracy was being mounted to overthrow the government
  23. 23.  In response to the bombing he launched raids in over 30 cities  Invaded private homes, meeting halls, pool parlors taking several thousand alleged communists into custody without warrants and beating those who resisted  Placed prisoners in jail and over 200 (with no criminal records) were deported to the USSR NY expelled 5 duly elected Socialists in 1919  Many people denounced the action
  24. 24.  Palmer predicted an uprising in May, but nothing happened til Sept. Americans saw it as the work of a few demented radicals 35 deaths, 200 injuries