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  2. 2. December 7th 1941
  3. 3. The Allies Trade Space For Time  After Pearl Harbor, the free world was on the edge of disaster  Japan running amok in Pacific and Germany might drive England to the wall before US aid could stem the tide.  ABC-1 agreement  Why is stopping Hitler a bigger priority?.  Plan: Devote enough energy to Japan to keep them from getting any more and begin to try to drive them back, but make Europe the first priority.  This strategy criticized by public, pacific commanders, China and far-east allies, but was sound.
  4. 4. Revving the Economic Engine  US had massive economic potential, but needed time to get geared up.  Wasn’t clear that had time.  England in desperate shape.  America needed to time to convert factories to all-out war production.  Fear that skilled German scientists would come up with dramatic new weapons.  Had to feed and arm itself and allies.
  5. 5. The Shock Of War  National unity wasn’t a problem—Pearl Harbor had silenced isolationists.  US communists and socialists fully backed the war. Why?  No government witch hunts against American Germans or most Japanese-Americans. Why?  Exception: West-Coast Japanese,  110,000 interned in concentration camps. Why?  Most interned were well integrated into US  Lost millions in earnings and property.  Upheld by Supreme Court in Korematsu v. U.S.  Apologize in 1988 and pay reparations.
  6. 6. Japanese Internment Waiting for the Signal From Home
  7. 7. Building The War Machine  War snapped US out of the depression.  Full employment.  War Production Board.  Henry J. Kaiser -Ship-building king
  8. 8. Rationing  War production board halted manufacture of non-essential items  War industries had first priority in transport and raw materials  National speed limit and gas rationing.  Food Rationing  Farmers have bumper crops and boom time.
  9. 9. Many items were rationed, gas, meat, sugar, coffee, (no more silk stocking) and Victory gardens were planted.
  10. 10. Do Your Part
  11. 11. Economic Bumps  War caused Inflation. Why?  WPB response.  Unions gave no-strike pledge, but hated wage caps and some staged labor stoppages.  Mine workers under John L. Lewis were the worst.  Roosevelt took a tough stance.  1943 Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
  12. 12. Manpower and Womanpower Shortage  15 Million men served in WWII.  216,000 women served in military in one capacity or another  WAACS (Army) , WAVES (Navy)  Severe manpower shortage at home.  Braceros.
  13. 13. Rosie the Riveter  6 Million women took jobs outside the home; over half had never worked before. Rosie the Riveter.  Effect on Women’s movement  2/3 left or lost their jobs after war.
  14. 14. Production Miracle
  15. 15. Wartime Migrations  Reason for wartime migrations.  Detroit and LA, Dallas  1.6 million blacks moved from the south.  New race problems in northern cities.  Blacks resent their treatment.  FDR issues executive order prohibiting discrimination in defense industries  Fair Employment Practices Commission.
  16. 16. Internal Migration in the United States During World War II
  17. 17. Blacks Demand Fairness  Blacks adopt the Double V slogan.  Military segregation  NAACP membership shoots up and Congress for Racial Equality is established (CORE)  Move north continues after the war.  Creation of Sun Belt
  18. 18. Holding the Home Front  Americans at home suffered very little from the war, especially when contrasted to the Brits and Russians.  War invigorated the US economy to an unprecedented level.  GNP doubled from 1940 to 1945 and pay checks went way up.  Disposable income more than doubled, but not much to spend on because all factories devoted to war.  The war, even more than the New Deal, leads to the Big Government of the second half of the 20th Century.
  19. 19. Federal Spending  All the federal spending finally cures the depression.  War cost $330 billion.  Where did money come from?  Forced US to borrow at unprecedented level and to raise taxes.  Top brackets went as high as 90%.  National debt goes from 49 Bill in 1941 to 259 Bill. in 1945.
  20. 20. Figure 36.1: The National Debt, 1930–1950
  21. 21. Fighting in the Pacific  THE RISING SUN IN THE PACIFIC  JAPAN’S HIGH TIDE AT MIDWAY  AMERICAN LEAPFROGGING TOWARD TOKYO  Students get this stuff on their own.
  22. 22. General McArthur leaves the Philippines March 1942
  23. 23. Why was Doolittle and his raiders hero's?
  24. 24. America Strikes Back!
  25. 25. Battle of Midway: End of the Beginning
  26. 26. Battle of Midway-End of the Beginning
  27. 27. Island Hoping
  28. 28. The Allied Halting Of Hitler  Battle of North Atlantic  German subs were sinking merchant ships faster than they could be built..  North Africa  9/42 Russia stalls the German steamroller on the outskirts of Stalingrad High-water mark for Hitler
  29. 29. The North African Second Front  Soviets are begging the allies to open second front. Allies recognize they need to.  Stalin’s concerns and fears  Allies concerns  Americans are willing to make a cross- channel invasion in 1942 but Churchill and England’s high command are against this.  British argue for an attack at the underbelly of Europe in the Mediterranean.
  30. 30. Operation Torch  Invade North Africa 11/42.  Ike in command.  Biggest sea-born invasion up to that time.  American troops get pummeled by Germans in first battle at Kasserine pass. Patton takes charge.  U.S. and Brits begin to drive Germans East.  Forced Germans to surrender in Tunisia 5/43
  31. 31. North Africa: June 1942 ―end of the beginning‖ ―Desert Fox‖ General Rommel stopped at the battle of El Alamein
  32. 32. Casablanca  Churchill and Roosevelt Jan. 1943.  Agree to invade Sicily. The plan  Many on American staff don’t like this idea.  Churchill and Roosevelt agree to insist on unconditional surrender of Germany. Why?
  33. 33. Sicily  Sicily invaded and falls 8/43.  Mussolini is deposed soon thereafter and Italy unconditionally surrenders.  Germans don’t leave and carry on fight in Italy
  34. 34. Allies go on the offensive North Africa opens the ―second front‖ Dwight D. Eisenhower leads the way Algeria 1942- Victory in May 1943 Sicily then Italy—General Patton Summer 1943 Mussolini resigns—Italy surrenders but Germans fight on– battle of Anzio
  35. 35. Invasion of Italy  9/43 Allies invade toe of Italy and start fighting up the boot.  Bogs down; amphibious invasion along the Western coast at Anzio.  Is very slow going in Italy fighting through the mountains.  Allies finally get Rome 2 days before D-Day.  Do not finish in Italy until 5 days before German surrender.
  36. 36. Italy Assessed  Benefits:  Does divert some German troops and provides us with air bases from which we can easily bomb Germany.  Does open the Mediterranean to Allies greatly restricting Germans.  Problems:  Delayed the cross-channel invasion by many months, giving Soviets a chance to get further into Eastern Europe before the war ends.  Increased Soviet suspicion
  37. 37. Heroes in combat Navajo code talkers Tuskegee airmen and ―Buffaloes‖-tankers 442 fighting Nisei most decorated unit in U.S. history-‖purple heart battalion‖
  38. 38. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEItXS35g8o#t=120
  39. 39. Tehran Conference  Late Nov. 1943  Purpose  First meeting of Roosevelt and Stalin  Roosevelt attempts to placate Stalin
  40. 40. Eisenhower’s D-day Invasion Of France  Eisenhower is given command of D-day landing.  June 6, 1944. Biggest sea-borne invasion in history.  Land near Normandy.  Five beaches. Gold, Juno, Sword, U tah, Omaha
  41. 41. ―Ike‖ talking to 101st airborne June 5th 1944
  42. 42. D-Day  Very hard fighting;  Have to break out before Germans bring in reinforcements and drive invasion back into the ocean.  US has Air superiority.  US has used paratroopers the night of the D-day invasion  Hitler dithers on the day of the invasion.  August, 1944, invasion of southern France opens a second front.  Patton breaks out and races to the German border, but is forced to stall when he can’t get enough supplies.
  43. 43. D-Day June 6th 1944- Omaha Beach
  44. 44. June 6th 1944 The assault begins ―D-Day‖
  45. 45. Election of 1944  Election of 1944 comes at a bad time—the war is reaching its climax  Republicans nominate Dewey, popular governor of New York. He is only 42 and is very liberal for a Republican.  Platform?  FDR is renominated as a matter of course.  Roosevelt is in very poor health.  VP, Henry Wallace, dumped and replaced by Truman. Why?  Roosevelt relationship with Truman.
  46. 46. Roosevelt Defeats Dewey  FDR stays in the White House running the war for most of the election.  Dewey position on New Deal  Dewey position on war.  Dewey is hurt by his VP candidate who has been a staunch isolationist.  FDR wins by 3 Million votes and 432-99 in the Electoral College. Reasons
  47. 47. The Last Days of Hitler  December 1944, Germany was wobbling.  Dec. 16, 1944 Hitler unleashes a powerful all-out counter-offense in the snow- shrouded and foggy Ardennes forest. Battle of the Bulge.  Allies are thrown back in disarray.  German target is port of Antwerp. Goal?
  48. 48. Bombing Germany as we advance
  49. 49. Battle of the Bulge  Problem—Germans are very low on fuel and lack air support.  101st Airborne is surrounded but refuses to surrender at Bastogne.  Constantly shelled, low supplies, no winter clothing.  Patton drives north in record time and relieves Bastogne.
  50. 50. V-E Day  March 1945 American Troops reach the Rheine  April, 1945 just outside Berlin, US forces meet up with Soviets who have been driving in from the East.  Discover the concentration camps.  April 12, 1945, Roosevelt dies.  Truman, who is totally out of the loop, is hastily sworn in.  April 30, 1945, Hitler commits suicide as Berlin is falling around him.  May 7, 1945, Germany surrenders unconditionally.
  51. 51. End of the war in Europe May 8th 1945 V-E Day
  52. 52. Japan Dies Hard  American subs devastate Japan’s merchant fleet.  Massive fire-bomb raids of Japanese cities.  March, 1945, destroy ¼ of Tokyo and killed over 80,000. As devastating as later Nuclear attacks.  MacArthur recaptures New Guinea.
  53. 53. Island Hoping
  54. 54. Leyte Gulf and Philippine  October, 1944, bigges t naval battle in history. Leyte Gulf.  Japan’s naval power is destroyed.  First Kamikazes.  Jan. 1945, recapture Philippine mainland. Douglas MacArthur returns to Philippines
  55. 55. Okinawa and Iwo Jima  Spring 1945 vicious battles on Okinawa and Iwo Jima.  Japanese fight to the last man, inflicting severe casualties.  Impact on US strategic thinking?
  56. 56. Okinawa
  57. 57. Yalta February 1945
  58. 58. Atomic Awfulness  Invasion of Japan is assumed will cost America thousands of casualties.  Japan is sending out peace-feelers, but does not appear willing to surrender unconditionally.  Potsdam conference July 1945 Allies agree again to unconditional surrender.  Japan wants to keep the emperor.  Manhattan project. Very secret.  First atomic bomb in New Mexico July 1945.  Nagasaki and Hiroshima—Japanese surrender.  Hiroshima—70,000 instant deaths and 60,000 more over next months due to radiation.  Soviets enter the war just after the first bomb and overrun Manchuria and Korea (hence North Korea)  Japan surrenders August 10, 1945
  59. 59. Why Does Truman Use the Bomb?  Avoid US casualties, but clear Japan would likely surrender before Invasion.  To show Soviets what we have  To prevent Soviets from being involved in Pacific longer and grabbing more territory and having a say in rebuilding of Japan.  Probably most important
  60. 60. Manhattan Project
  61. 61. The Home Front opportunities and adjustments • Economic gains and population shifts
  62. 62. G.I. Bill