Sociological analysis of the
functioning of Panchayats in India,
post 73rd constitutional amendment
Presented by :Madhav
• The first organised report made by Govt. India through
CDP 1952 and NES in 1953. On the completion of first
five year of CDP the planning commission appointed a
high ranking study committee added by MR. Balavant
Ray Mehta chief minister of Gujarat.
• The committee decided to local self Govt. System
ordinarily three level bodies from village level to block
level then to district level
• This democratic decentralised system was named as
• In 1957 Madras tried Panchayati raj as a pilot project.
• In 1958 Andhra Pradesh has 20 such pilot project.
Implement schemes for the development of agriculture.
Establishment of primary health centers and primary
Supply of drinking water, drainage, construction/repair
Development of cottage and small-scale industries and
opening of cooperative societies.
Establishment of youth organizations.
Source of Income
The main sources of income of the panchayat samiti are
grants-in-aid and loans from the State Govt.
Term related with Panchayati Raj
• Panch- A group of elders who settle disputes within the
limit of cast and custom
• Panchayat-An assembly of elected person of the village
bodies where the line of contact with higher authorities on
matters affecting to the village.
• Democracy-Democ means the people and cracy means rule
of. It is leading of the people by the people and for the
• Decentralisation-Evolution of centre authority among local
unit close to the area served.
• Democratic decentralisation- Means where authority
develops by the process if people institution and act as
local self Govt.
• Assistance to the economically weaker sections of the
• Cohesion and cooperative self help in the community.
• Development of cooperative institution.
• Development of local resources including the utilisation of
• Production in agriculture as the highest priority in planning.
• Progressive disposal of authority and insensitive both
vertically and horizontally with special emphasis on the role of
voluntary organizations (NGOs).
• Promotion of rural industries.
• Develop understanding and harmony among social structure.
• On 24th April 1993 the constitution act
1992(73rd amendment) came into force to
provide constitutional status with the
Panchayati raj institution.
Updated design of Panchayat Raj
• Constitution sanction for the creation of third tier of
• Establishment of a three-tier system structure at the
village, block and district level.
• Reservation of 33 per cent of seat at all level in the
Panchayati bodies for women as also SC/ST in
proportion of their population
• Setting up election commission to hold election
regularly with an interval of five year(unless it is
• Organising a planning committee at the distinct level for
micro level planning and reviving the gram sabha to
culture the people in the democratic process.
Resources and Panchayat planning
• Resource identification and a appraisal
3. Cropping pattern
4. Human resource
5. Live stock
• Mahatma Gandhi was very much aware of the
implications and impact of industrial development
model. That reason he rightly visualised and
stressed the need for decentralisation social,
economic and political order for welfare of
mankind. Gandhi wanted each village consisting
of about 1000 population should be governed by
representative of its inhabitancy and enjoy the
power of republic , barring of course, those power
which are beyond the realm of small village
Gram Kachaharri in Bihar
• First gram kachahari established in Mansi and Gogri block
of Khagariya District in Bihar 2009.
• Monitoring bodied where elected sarpanch and elected
panch in the gram panchayat
• The official process of hearing in the gram kachahari .
• The bench for hearing the petition is constituted of the
I. Sarpanch as the chair person
II. One panch nominated by the wodi (petitioner)
III. One panch nominated by the pratiwadi (accused)
IV. Two panchs nominated by the sarpanch
V. The Nyay Mitra and Nyay Sachiva ass facilitator
Types of case
Other (mischief behaviour, public nonsense,
havoc creation, Gambling, etc )
Participation of community
Interactive legal camp
Monopoly of sarpanch
Lack of training
Shy nature of women panch &
Successful solution of case at local level
Low cost justice
Conflict with police
Conflict among the members of GK
Measures to avoid weaknesses
• Implementation of training process
with heads of sarpanch (first type of training
camp should be organised )
With panch ( second time of training camp )
Pre independent period
• Traditional system of panchayat before
independence known as cast panchayat. It is
assembly of five persons known as panch
(commonly said as panch parmeswar ).
• Three tier system and state having over 20 lakh
• Every five year regularly election
• Reserved seats for SC, ST and women.
• State finance make recommendation as regard the
financial power of panchayat.
• Constitution of district planning committee to prapre
development plan for district.
• Decentralisation of power
• Development of villages
Implication of Panchayati Raj/Municipalities as the
Third Tier of Governance on
India’s Federal Structure
3. Zilla Panchayat
3. Municipal Corporation
2. Block/Taluk Panchayat
2. Municipal Council
1. Village Panchayat
1. Nagar Panchayat
GRAMA SABHA (Village Assembly)
WARD MEETINGS (for Municipal Areas
Autonomous Councils for Tribal Areas
Autonomous Councils are created in some States like West Bengal, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir and Assam for
administration and development of certain areas with special features. But they also have statutory local bodies
Landlord and feudal element
District Rural Development Agency
o The Principal organ at District level, to
develop District capabilities.
o specialized professional agency, capable of
effective program design, and implementation
of different anti-poverty programmes.
o Provide the linkage and support to the
o Provides synergies among different agencies
and bring about a convergence approach
o Catalyst to development process.
o Review the implementation process, ensure the
benefits earmarked to target group (e.g.
SC/ST/Women/Disabled) reach them.
o Improve/propagate the awareness regarding
rural development and poverty alleviation
o Empowering rural masses in their ability to
Widened the democratic base of rural India resulting
in inclusive and integrated growth.
Resulted in amazing development – women
empowerment and emergence of women as leaders.
Large numbers of women are shouldering
responsibilities with grace and competence,
bringing enormous courage, enthusiasm and
Empowerment with high degree of self confidence and
self esteem coupled, with political awareness and
Cross country rural market network- “Rural Business
Hubs”. Fusion of rural produce with corporate
Instrumental in planning and executing N.A.R.E.G.A
act ensuring 100 day wage employment in every
Instrumental in implementing rural development
schemes/ programmes of Central/ State governments.
KIIT school of Rural