Sph 106 Ch 3
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Sph 106 Ch 3






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    Sph 106 Ch 3 Sph 106 Ch 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Language
      • Def. – a body of symbols (most commonly words) and the systems for their use in messages that are common to the people of the same speech community.
      • Speech Community – a group of people who speak the same language.
      • Words – symbols used by a speech community to represent objects, ideas, and feelings.
      • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis – a theory claiming that language influences perception.
    • Uses of Language
      • To designate, label, define, and limit.
      • To evaluate.
      • To discuss things outside our immediate experience.
      • To talk about language.
    • Language and Meaning
      • The meaning of words is in people, not in the words themselves.
      • Words have two levels of meaning:
        • Denotation- using dictionary definitions to give meanings to words.
        • Connotation- using personal experiences and emotions.
        • (ex. Adroit! )
    • Language and Meaning
      • Meaning may vary depending on the syntactic context, the position of a word in a sentence, and the other words around it.
      • Language use by any speech community will change over time. (ex. When was the last time you used “groovy” in conversation?)
    • Meaning Varies
      • Subgroups develop variations on the core language that enable them to share meanings unique to their subculture. (ex. – The Man.)
      • We must develop language skills so that the messages we send are clear and sensitive.
    • Cultural Differences
      • Low-context Cultures: cultures in which messages are direct, specific, and detailed.
      • High-context Cultures: cultures in which messages are indirect, general, and ambiguous.
    • Gender Differences
      • Feminine styles of Language: use words of empathy or support, emphasize concrete and personal language, and show politeness and tentativeness in speaking.
      • Masculine styles of Language: use words of status and problem solving, emphasize abstract and general language, and show assertiveness and control in speaking.
    • Improving Language Skills
      • Choose specific language, or language that clarifies meaning by narrowing what is understood from a general category to a particular item or group within that category.
      • Concrete words- words that appeal to the senses and help us see, hear, smell, taste, or touch.
      • Precise words- words that narrow a large category.
    • Improving Language Skills
      • Develop Verbal Vividness and Emphasis
        • Vivid messages use language that is vigorous, bright, and intense.
        • Simile- a direct comparison of dissimilar things. (ex. cheeks like roses)
        • Metaphor- a comparison that establishes a figurative identity between objects being compared. (ex. drowning in money)
        • Emphasis- the weight or importance given to certain words or ideas.
    • Improving Language Skills
      • Provide details and examples
      • Specify the time when a fact was known to be true.
      • Indexing generalizations- the mental and verbal practice of acknowledging the presence of individual differences when voicing generalizations.
    • Speaking Appropriately
      • Def.- choosing language and symbols that are adapted to the needs, interests, knowledge, and attitudes of listeners in order to avoid language that alienates them.
      • Use vocabulary the listener understands. Adapt your vocabulary to the level of your listener, but avoid talking down to them.
    • Speaking Appropriately
      • Use Jargon Sparingly
        • Jargon- technical terms understood only by select groups.
        • If others do not speak the same jargon, remember to explain the terms you are using.
    • Speaking Appropriately
      • Use slang appropriate to the situation
        • Slang- informal vocabulary used by particular groups in society.
        • To use slang appropriately means you use it exclusively in situations where people will understand slang.
    • Speaking Appropriately
      • Demonstrate linguistic sensitivity- choose language that respects others and avoid language that others perceive as offensive.
      • Generic Language- using words that may apply only to one sex, race, or group as though they represent everyone.
      • Non Parallel language- language in which terms are changed because of the race, sex, or other characteristic of the individual.
        • Marking- the addition of sex, race, age or designation to a description.
        • Avoid marking if it is not relevant.
    • Powerpoints are online
      • http://www.slideshare.net/jbryanthall/slideshows