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Sph 106 Ch 14


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Sph 106 Ch 14

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Adapting Verbally and Visually
  2. 2. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally <ul><li>Relevance: adapting the information in the speech so that audience members view it as important to them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish timeliness: show how information is useful now. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish proximity: show a relationship to personal space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate personal impact. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally <ul><li>Information Comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orient the audience: present an overview of information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define key terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrate new concepts with vivid examples; helps understanding and memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalize information: present information within a frame of reference that is familiar to the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare unknown ideas with familiar ones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use multiple methods for developing criteria. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally <ul><li>Common ground: the background, knowledge, attitudes, experiences, and philosophies shared by audience members and the speaker. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use personal pronouns: (you, us, we, our) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask rhetorical questions: phrase questions to stimulate a mental response rather than an actual response spoken response from the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share common experiences: present personal experiences, examples and illustrations that exhibit what you and the audience have in common. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally <ul><li>Speaker Credibility: the confidence an audience places in the truthfulness of what a speaker says. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build audience perceptions of your knowledge and expertise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How prepare you seem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How well know and convey the material. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How you are directly involved with the topic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build audience perception of your trustworthiness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on moral and ethical traits. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on apparent motives. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally <ul><li>Speaker Credibility (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build audience perception of your personality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends upon if the audience sees the speaker as “one of them”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends upon appropriate grooming and dress. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends upon your ability to smile and use a pleasant tone. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally <ul><li>Initial Audience Attitudes: predispositions for or against a topic, often expressed as an opinion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use audience analysis to determine attitudes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt to attitudes accordingly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An important skill for informative speeches as well as persuasive speeches. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally <ul><li>Language and cultural differences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcome linguistic problems that result from that audience having difficulty understanding you because you are speaking in a second language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcome self-consciousness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speak slowly and articulate carefully. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice in front of trial audience. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose culturally sensitive materials that help you overcome a limited common experience on which to establish common ground. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Adapting to Audiences Visually <ul><li>Visual Aids: forms of speech development that enables the audience to see as well as hear information. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of visual aids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects: 3D representation of an idea you are communicating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models: useful when an object is too large or too small to be seen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still photographs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slides. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Film and video clips. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple drawings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphs. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally <ul><li>Methods for displaying visual aids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-mediated presentations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhead transparencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flip-charts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poster board. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chalkboards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handouts. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally <ul><li>Criteria for choosing visual aids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the most important ideas? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would he concept be more easily understood visually? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many visual aids are appropriate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How large is the audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the necessary equipment readily available? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the time involved in making the visual aid cost effective? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Designing Effective Visual Aids <ul><li>Use a print or type size that is easily readable. </li></ul><ul><li>Include only information that you include in your speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Lay out information in an aesthetically pleasing way. </li></ul>