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Language and Communication (2nd edition)


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Ch. 4 Real Communication by O'Hair and Wiemann
Language and Communication

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Language and Communication (2nd edition)

  1. 1. LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION Real Communication by Dan O’Hair and Mary Weimann Sunday, September 8, 13
  2. 2. LANGUAGE What is language? Sunday, September 8, 13
  3. 3. LANGUAGE A word is a symbol or a sign for something which forms a language. Words have multiple meanings. Denotative meaning is a basic and acceptable definition. Connotative meaning is the emotional or response that people have to it. Sunday, September 8, 13
  4. 4. LANGUAGE Cognitive language is the language we use to describe people, things, or situations in our mind. This is related to our thoughts, attitudes, co- cultures, the society in which we live. This can influence language and how we form our message. Sunday, September 8, 13
  5. 5. GRAMMAR The system of rules of a language that serves as a way to create words, phrases and sentences. Language is bound by relational, situational, and cultural context. To communicate well, you must understand the context as much as the grammar. Sunday, September 8, 13
  6. 6. WHAT IS FOCACCE? Sunday, September 8, 13
  7. 7. WHAT IS FOCACCE? We need the context... Sunday, September 8, 13
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE Communication Acquisition is learning how to use the words in a language, appropriately and effectively in context. Sunday, September 8, 13
  9. 9. FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE controlling informing feeling imagining ritualizing Sunday, September 8, 13
  10. 10. PROBLEMS WITH LANGUAGE AND MEANING Sunday, September 8, 13
  11. 11. PROBLEMS Hayakawa’s abstraction ladder language can range from vague to specific high is very vague low is very specific Sunday, September 8, 13
  12. 12. PROBLEMS evasion equivocation euphemisms slang jargon Sunday, September 8, 13
  13. 13. PROBLEMS Semantics is the meaning of words. Pragmatics is the appropriate use of words. Use of labels can erase individual differences. Sunday, September 8, 13
  14. 14. PROBLEMS Biased language is infused with subtle meanings that might affect our perceptions. Being PC-Politically Correct! facts, opinions, inferences “Just so you know, we’re on the good side with y’all. We do not want this war, this violence, and we’re ashamed that the President of the United States is from Texas.” Dixie Chicks Sunday, September 8, 13
  15. 15. LANGUAGE AND CONTEXT Sunday, September 8, 13
  16. 16. LANGUAGE BEHAVIORS Speech repertoires are files of language possibilities. church family friends work Sunday, September 8, 13
  17. 17. LANGUAGE BEHAVIORS Relationships High language-formal Low language-informal How comfortable are you in different situations? Sunday, September 8, 13
  18. 18. LANGUAGE BEHAVIORS Sapir-Whorf hypothesis says our words influence our thinking. If there is no word in that language for something, then the culture likely has few thoughts about that concept. (example: dinosaur didn’t exist in Albanian) Sunday, September 8, 13
  19. 19. LANGUAGE BEHAVIORS Linguistic determinism- language determines how we see the world around us. Linguistic relativity- speakers of different languages have different world views. Sunday, September 8, 13
  20. 20. LANGUAGE BEHAVIORS High-context cultures use the context to communicate in subtle ways. Low-context cultures use direct methods of communicating. Sunday, September 8, 13
  21. 21. LANGUAGE BEHAVIORS Gender Roles Geographic Area Dialects Sunday, September 8, 13
  22. 22. LANGUAGE BEHAVIORS Accommodation Code switching and Style switching changes your regular language and slang to fit into a particular group. You can also change your vocal tone, pitch, rhythm and inflection. Sunday, September 8, 13
  23. 23. LANGUAGE BEHAVIORS In technology our language must be precise. English is the language of the internet. Chat rooms and texting also has it’s own language. Sunday, September 8, 13