Sph 106 Ch 2


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Sph 106 Ch 2

  1. 1. Perception of Self and Others Chapter 2
  2. 2. The Perception Process <ul><li>The process of selectively attending to sensory information and assigning meaning to it. You brain selects information, organizes the information, and interprets and evaluates it. </li></ul><ul><li>Attention and Selection depend upon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Perception Process <ul><li>Organization of Stimuli takes place within the brain and may follow these principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity: we simplify verbal messages and nonverbal behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern: a set of characteristics used to differentiate things. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of Stimuli: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning meaning to information gathered. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Perception of Self <ul><li>Self Concept and Self Esteem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Concept is your identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Esteem is your overall evaluation of your competence and personal worthiness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forming and Maintaining Self Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self- Perception: unique interpretations about ourselves that we have based on experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactions and responses to others: our self-concept is formed and maintained by how others react to and respond to us. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Perception of Self <ul><li>Developing and Maintaining Self Esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Esteem is not just how well or poorly we think we do things, but also the importance or value we place on the things we do well or poorly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When we use our skills, abilities, and knowledge to ward worthy endeavors – we build Self Esteem. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Perception of Self <ul><li>Social Construction of Self: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role: a pattern of learned behaviors that people use to meet the perceived demands of a particular context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We all enact numerous roles in different contexts. Our sense of self is the total of all the selves we play and how others react to those selves. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Perception of Self <ul><li>Self-Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Monitoring is the internal process of observing and regulating your own behavior based on our analysis of the situation and others responses to you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are more likely to self monitor when we are in new situations. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Perception of Self <ul><li>Accuracy of Self-Concept and Self-Esteem is based on the accuracy of our perceptions and how we process others perceptions of us. </li></ul><ul><li>Incongruence: gap between our inaccurate self-perception and reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: events that happen as the result of being foretold, expected, or talked about. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Perception of Self <ul><li>Filtering Message: we are prone to pay attention to messages that reinforce our current self image and ignore messages that contradict this image. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Self-Concepts and Self Esteem: self-concept and self esteem can change over time. A change in the social environment can expedite this process. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing our self esteem has a positive effect on our ability to communicate. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Perceptions of Self <ul><li>Self Talk: the internal conversations we have with ourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Self Perception: influences how we talk about ourselves with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Background and gender will affect your view of self, expectations, roles, and self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualist cultures focus more on the individual, where collectivist cultures focus more on the group. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Perceptions of Self <ul><li>Male versus Female Norms: gender roles affect behavioral expectations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Perception of Others <ul><li>Uncertainty Reduction Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of monitoring the social environment to learn more about self and others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observing the physical characteristics and social behaviors of others is often the basis of first impressions and social impressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit Personality Theories: assumptions people have developed about which physical characteristics and personality traits are associated with another </li></ul>
  13. 13. Perception of Others <ul><li>Halo Effects: to generalize that a person has a whole set of characteristics when you have only observed one characteristic, trait of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes are attributes that cover up individual differences and ascribe certain characteristics to an entire group of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice: a rigid attitude that is based on group membership and predisposes an individual to think, feel, or act in a negative way towards another person or group. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Perceptions of Others <ul><li>Discrimination: a negative action toward another person or group on account of group membership. </li></ul><ul><li>Our emotions affect how accurately we perceive others and the time of interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Attributions: reasons we give for others’ behavior. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Perceptions of Messages <ul><li>Context is the most important factor in determining how a message will be understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Language: both the actual language and the shared meaning of a particular word or phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Skillfulness in encoding and decoding messages: the ability to choose specific, concrete, and precise words as we form our messages. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Perception Checking <ul><li>Is a message that reflects your understanding of the meaning of another person’s nonverbal behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Watch the behavior of the other person. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Ask yourself “What does this behavior mean to me?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. describe the behavior and put your interpretation into words to verify your perception. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Powerpoints are Online <ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/jbryanthall/slideshows </li></ul>