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Sph 106 Ch 3


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Sph 106 Ch 3

  1. 2. Language <ul><li>Def. – a body of symbols (most commonly words) and the systems for their use in messages that are common to the people of the same speech community. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Community – a group of people who speak the same language. </li></ul><ul><li>Words – symbols used by a speech community to represent objects, ideas, and feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis – a theory claiming that language influences perception. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Uses of Language <ul><li>To designate, label, define, and limit. </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate. </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss things outside our immediate experience. </li></ul><ul><li>To talk about language. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Language and Meaning <ul><li>The meaning of words is in people, not in the words themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Words have two levels of meaning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denotation- using dictionary definitions to give meanings to words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connotation- using personal experiences and emotions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ex. Adroit! ) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Language and Meaning <ul><li>Meaning may vary depending on the syntactic context, the position of a word in a sentence, and the other words around it. </li></ul><ul><li>Language use by any speech community will change over time. (ex. When was the last time you used “groovy” in conversation?) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Meaning Varies <ul><li>Subgroups develop variations on the core language that enable them to share meanings unique to their subculture. (ex. – The Man.) </li></ul><ul><li>We must develop language skills so that the messages we send are clear and sensitive. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Cultural Differences <ul><li>Low-context Cultures: cultures in which messages are direct, specific, and detailed. </li></ul><ul><li>High-context Cultures: cultures in which messages are indirect, general, and ambiguous. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Gender Differences <ul><li>Feminine styles of Language: use words of empathy or support, emphasize concrete and personal language, and show politeness and tentativeness in speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine styles of Language: use words of status and problem solving, emphasize abstract and general language, and show assertiveness and control in speaking. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Improving Language Skills <ul><li>Choose specific language, or language that clarifies meaning by narrowing what is understood from a general category to a particular item or group within that category. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete words- words that appeal to the senses and help us see, hear, smell, taste, or touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Precise words- words that narrow a large category. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Improving Language Skills <ul><li>Develop Verbal Vividness and Emphasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivid messages use language that is vigorous, bright, and intense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simile- a direct comparison of dissimilar things. (ex. cheeks like roses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphor- a comparison that establishes a figurative identity between objects being compared. (ex. drowning in money) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis- the weight or importance given to certain words or ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Improving Language Skills <ul><li>Provide details and examples </li></ul><ul><li>Specify the time when a fact was known to be true. </li></ul><ul><li>Indexing generalizations- the mental and verbal practice of acknowledging the presence of individual differences when voicing generalizations. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Speaking Appropriately <ul><li>Def.- choosing language and symbols that are adapted to the needs, interests, knowledge, and attitudes of listeners in order to avoid language that alienates them. </li></ul><ul><li>Use vocabulary the listener understands. Adapt your vocabulary to the level of your listener, but avoid talking down to them. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Speaking Appropriately <ul><li>Use Jargon Sparingly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jargon- technical terms understood only by select groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If others do not speak the same jargon, remember to explain the terms you are using. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Speaking Appropriately <ul><li>Use slang appropriate to the situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slang- informal vocabulary used by particular groups in society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To use slang appropriately means you use it exclusively in situations where people will understand slang. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Speaking Appropriately <ul><li>Demonstrate linguistic sensitivity- choose language that respects others and avoid language that others perceive as offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Generic Language- using words that may apply only to one sex, race, or group as though they represent everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>Non Parallel language- language in which terms are changed because of the race, sex, or other characteristic of the individual. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marking- the addition of sex, race, age or designation to a description. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid marking if it is not relevant. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Powerpoints are online <ul><li> </li></ul>