Sph 106 Ch 4


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Sph 106 Ch 4

  1. 1. Communication Though Nonverbal Behavior
  2. 2. <ul><li>Def.- bodily actions and vocal qualities that typically accompany a verbal message. They are usually interpreted as intentional and have agreed upon meanings within a given speech culture or community. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Is continuous. </li></ul><ul><li>Is multi-channeled. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be intentional or unintentional. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning can be ambiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>Is he primary conveyor of our emotions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Kinesics- the interpretation of body motions used in communication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures-movements of our hands, arms, and fingers that we use to describe or to emphasize. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrators- gestures that augment a verbal message. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emblems- gestures that substitute for words. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptors- gestures that respond to a physical need. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye Contact- how and how much we look at people with whom we are communicating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Expression- the arrangement of facial muscles to communicate emotional states or reactions to messages. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Emoticons- typed symbols that convey emotional aspects of an online message. [ex.- :) ] </li></ul><ul><li>Posture- the position and movement of the body; body orientation; posture in relation to another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Haptics- the interpretation of touch. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction to touch is affected by individual preference, family background, and culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction to touch differs within context (public versus private). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Def.- the interpretation of the message based on paralinguistic features; paralanguage is the voiced but not verbal part of a spoken message. </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch- the highness or lowness of vocal tone. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume- the loudness or softness of tone. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate- the speed at which a person speaks. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality- the sound of a person’s voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation- the variety, melody, or inflection in one’s voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocalized pauses- extraneous sounds or words that interrupt fluent speech. (ex. – Uh, You know, So) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Def.- the interpretation of one’s use of personal space. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal space- the distance you try to maintain when you interact with other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical space- the part of the physical environment over which you exert control. </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts- objects and possessions we use to decorate the physical space we control. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Physical Appearance- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endomorph- Round and Heavy Body Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesomorph- Muscular and Athletic Body Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ectomorph- Tall and Thin Body Type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clothing and personal grooming- physical appearance sends a message and one should adapt their style of clothing and personal grooming techniques to the setting. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Def.- the way others interpret your use of time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monochronic Time Orientation- a time orientation that emphasizes doing one thing at a time, adheres to schedules and rigid appointment times, and schedules interpersonal relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polychronic Time Orientation- a time orientation that emphasizes doing multiple things at once, views schedules as flexible, an subordinates scheduled activities to interpersonal relationships. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Kinesics- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact is not universally appropriate and differs in cultures and subcultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions and gestures- There are many similarities in facial expressions across cultures, but gestures differ across cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays of emotion differ based on culture and gender; gesture style is often used to label masculinity or femininity. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Haptics- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch is closely linked to culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning of touch differs by gender. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cultures contact, where others restrict it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume varies greatly by culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States stereotypes masculine voices as low pitched and loud, and feminine voices and high pitched and expressive. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Proxemics- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differ between individualistic and collectivist societies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artifacts and Personal Appearance- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and gender influence clothing choices. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronemics- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dominant U.S. culture has a monochromatic time orientation, while many Latin American and Arab cultures have polychronic orientation. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Interpreting Nonverbal Messages- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t automatically assume a particular behavior means something specific. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider cultural, gender, and individual influences on behavior when interpreting nonverbal cues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal messages should be interpreted in context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use perception checking. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Sending Nonverbal Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be conscious of your own nonverbal behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be purposeful in your use of nonverbal communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t let your nonverbal cues distract from your message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure your nonverbal cues match your verbal communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt nonverbal behavior to the situation. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/jbryanthall/slideshows </li></ul>