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Sph 107 Ch 12


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Sph 107 Ch 12

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Delivering Your Public Speech
  2. 2. Why is Delivery so Important? <ul><li>Delivery is the way you communicate your message orally and visually through your use of voice, face, and body. </li></ul><ul><li>Listeners are persuaded more by the delivery of the speech than the content. </li></ul><ul><li>55 to 90% of the meaning listeners grasp is derived from the delivery. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are the Characteristics of effective delivery? <ul><li>Delivery is conveyed through the nonverbal channel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes elements such as: eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, body language, and even appearance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective delivery has two main characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listener centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid sending nonverbal messages that do not reinforce your verbal message. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of effective delivery? <ul><li>Effective delivery is conversational. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public speaking is communication, not a performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate with your audience, not at them. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Principles of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Inevitable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You cannot not communicate nonverbally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your dress and behavior communicate things about you. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culturally Bound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact is a sign of respect in the U.S. but is interpreted as disrespect in many cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because they are ambiguous, nonverbal cues can mean different things in different situations. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Principles of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Nonverbal cues are believed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When verbal and nonverbal conflict, people believe the nonverbal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal cues are conveyed simultaneously by several cues. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Proxemics- they way in which space and distance communicate meaning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand at a distance where you and your audience can easily make eye contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller groups should be addressed from 4 to 8 feet away. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger groups should be addressed from more than 8 feet away. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Chronemics – messages we send through time based on cultural context. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western cultures are very time oriented: “Time is money” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrive early. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to adhere to the timeline that your audience expects. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Object Language- communication through appearance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A professional appearance adds to a speakers credibility or ethos. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid extreme forms of dress or appearance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress more formally than your audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider your topic and purpose. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Eye Contact <ul><li>Eyes are the number one source of nonverbal communication – Make Eye Contact with your Audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Span the entire audience with your eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact makes the listeners feel more involved in your speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact will help you read the feedback from your audience and adjust your message accordingly. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Use of Body to Send Messages <ul><li>Facial Expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most effective facial expressions are lively and yet appear natural and spontaneous. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most beginning speakers are reluctant to use facial expressions, but appropriate use can add to a speakers message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important not to over do it. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Use of Body to Send Messages <ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They emphasize an important point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They reference presentational aids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They clarify structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate structures that do not do serve these functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gesture from the elbow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan and practice your gestures. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Use of Body to Send Messages <ul><li>Posture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listeners begin to evaluate you before you begin speaking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pause before you begin speaking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the speech, stand firmly which your feet about should width apart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid swaying or leaning on the podium. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Use of Body to Send Messages <ul><li>Body Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use motivated movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce the verbal message with your movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement should be used with a gesture to appear more normal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain “open” to your audience when you move from side to side. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Use of Voice to Send Messages <ul><li>Intelligibility - the capacity to be understood. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal quality, or timbre, distinguishes your voice from others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate is the speed at which you deliver your speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume is how lowly or softly you speak. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch refers to the highness or lowness of your voice on the musical staff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronunciation refers to how the words sound and what parts are stressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enunciation is the act of speaking distinctly and clearly. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Use of Voice to Send Messages <ul><li>Vocal Variety – changing rate, pitch, and volume. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional intent can be reinforced by gradually speeding up or slowing down, speaking higher or lower, or speaking louder and softer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pauses can be used to stress important points. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Use of Voice to Send Messages <ul><li>Conversational Style – sounding spontaneous and natural despite having practiced your speech. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Methods of Delivery <ul><li>The Impromptu Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking with limited preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You sound more spontaneous and conversational because of the nature of the presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Manuscript Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading a speech that has been written out in its entirety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough to make sound conversational. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough to adapt to your audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid except for quotes and statistics. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Methods of Delivery <ul><li>The Memorized Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to manuscript in that it is fully written out before the performance but differs in that the speech is presented from memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows lots of eye contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes lots of practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unexpected feedback can throw you off. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Methods of Delivery <ul><li>The Extemporaneous Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a speech to be carefully researched and planned just like the Memorized and Manuscript methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More conversational while remaining organized and coherent. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Practicing Your Speech <ul><li>Don’t wait to the last minute to practice. </li></ul><ul><li>The best speech can fail if your delivery is poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Finish your outline at least three days before your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Always practice out loud. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark delivery cue reminders on you speaking outline. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice in front of friends or family members. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Delivery and Public Speaking Anxiety <ul><li>Never apologize for being nervous. It just draws attention to how nervous you are and makes your nerves worse. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn your nerves into energy that enhances your performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice, Practice, Practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to make eye contact. </li></ul>
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