METHODOLOGY III ENGLISH SCHOOL Mgs. Gina Camacho Minuche Second Term Abril Agosto 2011
CONTENTS
Style, context and register <ul><li>Language varies according to uses, users, and the place where it is used. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>The speaker’s relationship  to the addressee is crucial in determining the appropriate style of speaking. And how ...
44444444444
<ul><li>The addresee or audience is a very important influence on a speaker’s style.  For example:   The behavior of the s...
<ul><li>Speech convergence </li></ul><ul><li>When people talk to each  other their speech often becomes more similar, that...
Examples People may converge:  9
<ul><li>When people simplify their vocabulary and grammar in talking to foreigners  and children, they are converging down...
<ul><li>Choosing a language not used by one’s addressee is the clearest example of speech divergence. </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
<ul><li>Convergence happens when an individual adjusts his speech patterns to match those of people belonging to another g...
ACCOMMODATION PROBLEMS <ul><li>When someone mispronounces a word in a conversation with you, for instance, how do you reac...
CONTEXT, STYLE AND CLASS <ul><li>When we combine information about the way people from different social groups speak with ...
<ul><li>Example:  to sound more casual at a party, people model their speech of that of a lower social group. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Hypercorrection </li></ul><ul><li>It is a sociolinguistic term that refers to the social function of certain lingu...
Speech functions, politeness and cross-cultural communication
The Phatic communication conveys an effective or social message rather than a referential one. The way a message is given ...
<ul><li>Politeness and address forms </li></ul><ul><li>Being polite is a complicated business in any language. It is diffi...
<ul><li>Anyone who has travelled outside their own speech community is likely to have had some experience of miscommunicat...
<ul><li>Example:  In New Zealand a commonly quoted phrase is  Ladies a plate, gentlemen a crate , meaning women should bri...
<ul><li>Linguistic competence goes together with culture </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of including culture in planning...
<ul><li>Learners require to learn and understand the customs, habits, beliefs, behavior, and language patterns of the cult...
<ul><li>When in class, it is necessary to avoid  making judgments about other students cultures especially the ones based ...
<ul><li>Some authors suggest to use authentic materials such as: photographs, newspapers, travel brochures to help student...
<ul><li>Sharing , learning and contributing in the use of target language in appropriate way in a multicultural classroom,...
<ul><li>COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>This model was developed to account for the kinds of knowledge people n...
<ul><li>Grammatical competence </li></ul><ul><li>Is the ability to use the forms of the language (sounds, words, and sente...
<ul><li>Discourse competence </li></ul><ul><li>Is the ability to understand and create forms of the language that are long...
Sociolinguistic Competence <ul><li>Is the ability to use language appropriately in different contexts. It overlaps signifi...
<ul><li>It is our sociolinguistic competence  </li></ul><ul><li>that allows us to be polite according  </li></ul><ul><li>t...
Strategic Competence <ul><li>Is the ability to compensate for lack of ability in any of the other areas.  </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>In both cases, you rely on your strategic competence to help you communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t know ...
METHODOLOGY III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
METHODOLOGY III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
METHODOLOGY III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
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METHODOLOGY III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: Mgs. Gina Camacho Minuche
Ciclo: Séptimo
Bimestre: Segundo

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  • METHODOLOGY III (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

    1. 1. METHODOLOGY III ENGLISH SCHOOL Mgs. Gina Camacho Minuche Second Term Abril Agosto 2011
    2. 2. CONTENTS
    3. 3. Style, context and register <ul><li>Language varies according to uses, users, and the place where it is used. </li></ul><ul><li>The better you know someone, the more casual and relaxed the speech style you will use to them. </li></ul><ul><li>People use more standard forms to those they do not know well, and more vernacular forms to their friends. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>The speaker’s relationship to the addressee is crucial in determining the appropriate style of speaking. And how well you know someone or how close you feel to them, is one important dimension of social relationships. </li></ul>Influence of addresse on style
    5. 5. 44444444444
    6. 6. <ul><li>The addresee or audience is a very important influence on a speaker’s style. For example: The behavior of the same newsreader on different stations. Where the stations share studios, a person may read the same news on two different stations during the same day. The news is the same and the context is identical except for one factor – the addressees. So the same person reading the news on the middle-level station reads in a very much less formal style than on the higher-brow radio station. </li></ul>6
    7. 7. <ul><li>Speech convergence </li></ul><ul><li>When people talk to each other their speech often becomes more similar, that is to say each person’s speech converges towards the speech of the person they are talking to. This process is called speech accomodation . It often occurs when the speakers like one another, or where one speaker has a vested interest in pleasing the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Converging towards the speech of another person is usually a polite speech strategy. </li></ul>Accomodation theory
    8. 8. Examples People may converge: 9
    9. 9. <ul><li>When people simplify their vocabulary and grammar in talking to foreigners and children, they are converging downwards towards the lesser linguistic proficiency of their addressees. </li></ul><ul><li>People may accomodate to others by selecting the code that is most comfortable for their addressees. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: In the market you usually acccomodate to the language of the person selling goods in order to secure good will and good bargain. </li></ul>How do speakers accommodate?
    10. 10. <ul><li>Choosing a language not used by one’s addressee is the clearest example of speech divergence. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of metaphors in Literature, in that the message cloaked in this kind of register is accessible only to those who are conversant with the code is another example of divergence. </li></ul>Speech divergence
    11. 11. <ul><li>Convergence happens when an individual adjusts his speech patterns to match those of people belonging to another group or social identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Divergence happens when an individual adjusts his speech patterns to be distinct from those of people belonging to another group or social identity. </li></ul>
    12. 12. ACCOMMODATION PROBLEMS <ul><li>When someone mispronounces a word in a conversation with you, for instance, how do you react? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you converge and misprounce it too? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you diverge and pronounce it the way you know it ought to be pronounced? </li></ul><ul><li>Note: The best way of solving an accommodation problem will depend on the context. </li></ul>
    13. 13. CONTEXT, STYLE AND CLASS <ul><li>When we combine information about the way people from different social groups speak with information about the way people speak in different contexts, it is clear that features of social class and contextual style interact. </li></ul><ul><li>When a person wants to shift </li></ul><ul><li>style, the obvious way to vary </li></ul><ul><li>your speech is to imitate the </li></ul><ul><li>speech of another person. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Example: to sound more casual at a party, people model their speech of that of a lower social group. </li></ul><ul><li>When people shift styles, they often adopt the linguistic features of a different group. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Hypercorrection </li></ul><ul><li>It is a sociolinguistic term that refers to the social function of certain linguistic phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic hypercorrection occurs when a real or imagined grammatical or phonetical rule is applied in a mistaken or non-standard context, so that an attempt to be &quot;correct&quot; leads to an incorrect result. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The use of I rather than me in constructions such as between you and I illustrates structural hypercorrection . </li></ul>
    16. 16. Speech functions, politeness and cross-cultural communication
    17. 17. The Phatic communication conveys an effective or social message rather than a referential one. The way a message is given is always going to depend on the intonation, tone of voice and context the speaker uses. The form people choose in a particular context depends on the social distance between participants, their relatives status, and the formality of the context.
    18. 18. <ul><li>Politeness and address forms </li></ul><ul><li>Being polite is a complicated business in any language. It is difficult to learn because it involves understanding not just the language, but also the social and cultural values of the community. </li></ul>Being polite is not as simply as a matter of saying please and thank you. Politeness involves taking account of the feelings of others.
    19. 19.
    20. 20. <ul><li>Anyone who has travelled outside their own speech community is likely to have had some experience of miscommunication based on cultural differences. Often, these relate to different assumptions deriving from different ‘normal’ environments. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to know what people mean in the cultural context. </li></ul>Culture
    21. 21. <ul><li>Example: In New Zealand a commonly quoted phrase is Ladies a plate, gentlemen a crate , meaning women should bring some food and men some beer. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning another language usually involves a great deal more than learning the literal meaning of the words, how to put them together, and how to promounce them. </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Linguistic competence goes together with culture </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of including culture in planning lessons as a strategy for students to find their own way to speak in the second language speech community through activities that enable them to observe and differentiate the culture diversity behaviors and ways to address information. </li></ul>The Cultural Dimension in Foreign Language Learning
    23. 23. <ul><li>Learners require to learn and understand the customs, habits, beliefs, behavior, and language patterns of the culture of this new language and establish differences with their own language in view of the fact that both can be perceived in different ways from each culture. </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>When in class, it is necessary to avoid making judgments about other students cultures especially the ones based on personal opinions, this would create an environment of respect about other cultures </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Some authors suggest to use authentic materials such as: photographs, newspapers, travel brochures to help students to be involved in authentic cultural experiences as well as the use of proverbs, role play, culture capsules, ethnographic studies, literature, films and television to establish differences or similarities in their use from one language to another. </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>Sharing , learning and contributing in the use of target language in appropriate way in a multicultural classroom, to use actual objects from their own and target culture and discover experiences from invited students who live in native countries </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>This model was developed to account for the kinds of knowledge people need in order to use language in meaningful interaction . </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Grammatical competence </li></ul><ul><li>Is the ability to use the forms of the language (sounds, words, and sentence structures) </li></ul><ul><li>Is knowing how to use the grammar, syntax, and vocabulary of a </li></ul><ul><li>language. </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Discourse competence </li></ul><ul><li>Is the ability to understand and create forms of the language that are longer than sentences, such as stories, conversations, or business letters. It includes understanding how particular instances of language use are internally constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse competence also includes understanding how texts relate to </li></ul><ul><li>the context or situation in which </li></ul><ul><li>they are used. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Sociolinguistic Competence <ul><li>Is the ability to use language appropriately in different contexts. It overlaps significantly with discourse competence because it has to do with expressing, interpreting and negotiating meaning according to culturally-derived norms and expectations. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>It is our sociolinguistic competence </li></ul><ul><li>that allows us to be polite according </li></ul><ul><li>to the situation we are in and to be </li></ul><ul><li>able to infer the intentions of the others. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Strategic Competence <ul><li>Is the ability to compensate for lack of ability in any of the other areas. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you do when you do not know a word that you need? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you manage a social situation when you aren’t quite sure about the rules of etiquette? </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>In both cases, you rely on your strategic competence to help you communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t know how to express something you use gestures and facial expressions. </li></ul>

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