Epic : a long narrative poem centering on a heroic figure who represents the fate of a nation.
Beowulf is an Old English heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship. In the poem, Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, battles three antagonists: Grendel, Grendel's mother; and, later in life after becoming a king, an unnamed dragon.
Ah…Obi-wan has taught you well. The force is with you young Skywalker, but you are not a Jedi yet. - Darth Vader
Define concrete poem.
Concrete poem is written in a shape that adds meaning to the poem.
Dramatic monologue : a poem in which a character addresses an audience.
A fictional character, at a critical or dramatic point in life, addresses a particular “audience”, which his identifiable but silent. In the course of the monologue, we learn a great deal, often ironically, about the character who is speaking and the circumstance that have led to the speech.
A form of monologue found most often in drama. It differs from a dramatic monologue in that the speaker is alone, revealing thoughts and feelings to or for oneself that are intentionally unheard by other characters in Shakespeare’s plays for example the principal characters’ reflections on how to act or questions of conscience are revealed in their soliloquies. “To be or not to be…” (Shakespeare’s Hamlet )
???: a meditation or celebration of a specific subject.
Ode: a meditation or celebration of a specific subject.
ODE ON A GRECIAN URN
By John Keats
What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape Of deities or mortals, or of both, In Tempe or the dales of Arcady? What men or gods are these? What maidens loath? What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape? What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?
___________ : a poem of fourteen lines in iambic pentameter.
Sonnet: a poem of fourteen lines in iambic pentameter.
The New Colossus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, (a) With conquering limbs astride from land to land; (b) Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand (b) A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame (a) Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name (a) Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand (b) Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command (b) The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. (a)
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she (c) With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, (d) Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, (c) The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. (d) Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, (c) I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" (d)
Let me not to the marriage of true minds (a) Admit impediments. Love is not love (b) Which alters when it alteration finds, (a) Or bends with the remover to remove. (b) O no, it is an ever fixed mark (c) That looks on tempests and is never shaken; (d) It is the star to every wand'ring barque, (c) Whose worth's unknown although his height be taken. (d) Love's not time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks (e) Within his bending sickle's compass come; (f) Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, (e) But bears it out even to the edge of doom. (f) If this be error and upon me proved, (g) I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (g)
Assonance: repetition of vowel sounds among words that begin or end with different consonants.
"D o y ou like bl ue ?".
H o w n o w br o wn c o w
Hear the m e llow w e dding b e lls.
— Edgar Allan Poe, "The Bells"
Meter and rhythm: movement and pattern in a poem.
Metrical verse follows a set rhythmical pattern. Free verse or vers libre , does not.
The meter of a poem is its rhythmical pattern.
English verse is made of rhythmical units called feet. A foot is made up of weakly stressed ( ˘) and strongly stressed (/) syllables.
Poetry has feet? unbeliev able ˘ ˘ Pyrrhee or pyrrhic foot baseball / / Spondee, or spondaic foot feverish / ˘ ˘ Dactyl, or dactylic foot in a flash ˘ ˘/ Anapest, or anapestic foot freedom / ˘ Trochee, or trochaic foot afraid ˘ / Iamb, or iambic foot Example Pattern Type of Foot
How many feet does your poem have? A perfect knight he was, that all could plainly see. six feet hexameter That time of year thou may’st in me behold five feet pentameter O saddle up my milk white steed four feet tetrameter In the midst of mourning three feet trimeter After autumn Comes the winter two feet dimeter And I Shall fly away one foot monometer Example Number of feet Term
Iambic pentameter: ten syllables with 2nd, 4th 6th, 8th, 10th syllables accented.
Rhetorical techniques are extraordinary but literal use of language to achieve a particular effect.
Antithesis- a rhetorical technique in which words, phrases or ideas are strongly contrasted often by repeating a grammatical structure. Ex; to err is human, to forgive divine.”
Apostrophe- rhetorical technique in which an object or person is directly addressed.
Catalog- a list of people or things
Chiasmus- a rhetorical technique in which the order of occurrence of words or phrases is reversed. Ex.: we can weather changes but we can’t change the weather.
Parallelism- a rhetorical technique in which a writer emphasizes the equal value or weight of two or more ideas by expressing them in the same grammatical form, as in the phrase “with hope, with joy, and with love.”
Repetition- writers conscious reuse of a sound, a word, phrase sentence or other element.
Rhetorical question: a question asked for effect but not meant to be answered because the answer is clear from the context.
Allegory- a narrative in prose or verse, in which abstract ideas, principles human values or states d of mind are personified. The purpose of the allegory is to illustrate the significance of the ideas by dramatizing them. Parable and fable are kinds of allegory in which a moral I illustrated in the form of a story.
A reference to a historical event, to Biblical, mythological or literary characters and incidents with which the reader is assumed to be familiar. Allusion may , with few words, enrich or extend the meaning of a phrase or idea or image, Allusion may also be used for ironic effect. In his poem Out Rober frost expects the reader to recall from Macbeth’s final soliloquy the line “Out out brief candle “ Such expressions as “ a Herculean task” or “Achilles heel” are also forms of allusion.
In general a tone or figure of speech in which there is a discrepancy a striking difference or contradiction between what is expressed and what is meant or expected. Irony maybe used to achieve a powerful effect indir4ectly. In satire, for example it may be used to ridicule or criticize.
Related to paradox, oxymoron is a figure of speech in which two contradictory or sharply contrasting terms are paired fro emphasis or ironic effect. Students favorite examples include “jumbo shrimp” and “army Intelligence.” Poets have written of the “wise fool” “ Joyful sadness” or and “eloquent silence.”