Rhetorical Modes


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Rhetorical Modes

  1. 1. The Rhetorical modes Academic Writing Unit EW 3 classes Ms. A. Rodriguez High School for World Cultures Bronx, New York
  2. 2. What does the five-paragraph essay look like? <ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION: The first paragraph contains the summary of topic, three supporting ideas, and the thesis statement . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BODY : The second paragraph contains the first supporting idea with evidence. The last sentence of it leads into the next idea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BODY : The third paragraph contains the second supporting idea with the same structure as the second. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BODY : The fourth paragraph contains the third supporting idea and the same structure as the second and third with the last sentence leading to the conclusion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION: The last paragraph restates the thesis, three supporting ideas, and gives the reader something to think about. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is a thesis statement? <ul><li>A thesis statement is a section of text which clearly outlines the argument that will be presented in a paper. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: It is a great idea for schools to implement a policy on school uniforms because statistics show that students who wear uniforms earn better grades , the male students aren't as distracted by what the female students are (or aren't) wearing, and students feel a sense of equality with one another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thesis statements include the points that will be supported in the argument. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why do we need to know this? <ul><li>Rhetorical modes are the kinds of writing and their purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing the rhetorical modes helps us recognize them in essay questions and writing exams. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing the styles and the techniques helps us create polished pieces of writing . </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are the four most common rhetorical modes? <ul><li>Argumentation: The purpose of argumentation is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Description: The purpose of description visually present a person, place, event, or action . </li></ul><ul><li>Narration: The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events . </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition: The purpose of exposition is to explain and analyze information. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Argumentation <ul><li>The purpose of argumentation (sometimes also called persuasive writing ) is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive writing is a type of argumentation with the additional aim to urge the reader to take some form of action . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Examples of argumentation writing <ul><li>Critical review </li></ul><ul><li>Editorials </li></ul><ul><li>Job evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Letters to the editor </li></ul><ul><li>Résumés/Cover letter </li></ul>
  8. 8. Descriptive <ul><li>Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities </li></ul><ul><li>A description is usually arranged spatially but can be chronological. The focus of a description is the scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Description uses tools such as figurative language, metaphor, and simile to arrive at a dominant impression. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Description <ul><li>The purpose of description is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that which is being described. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive writing can be found in the other rhetorical modes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examples of description writing <ul><li>Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Journal writing </li></ul><ul><li>Witness statements </li></ul><ul><li>Lab reports </li></ul>
  11. 11. Narration <ul><li>The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events. </li></ul><ul><li>This writing mode frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Narration is an especially useful tool for sequencing or putting details and information into some kind of logical order, usually chronological. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples of narrative writing <ul><li>Anecdote: a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident </li></ul><ul><li>Autobiography : a biography written by its subject (or sometimes, in modern usage, composed conjointly with a collaborative writer , styled &quot;as told to&quot; or &quot;with&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>Memoir - Closely associated with autobiography , difficult to precisely distinguish from it, is the form of memoir. As a literary genre, a memoir , forms a subclass of autobiography </li></ul><ul><li>Biography: a description of someone's life, usually published in the form of a book or essay, or in some other form, such as a film. </li></ul><ul><li>Novel: &quot;short story of something new&quot; is today a long narrative in literary prose. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral histories: can be defined as the recording, preservation and interpretation of historical information, based on the personal experiences and opinions of the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Short stories: The short story refers to a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, usually in narrative format. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Exposition <ul><li>The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What are some types of expository writing? <ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Classification and Division </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison and Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Process Analysis </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples of expository writing <ul><li>How-to essays, such as recipes and other instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Business letters </li></ul><ul><li>Personal letters </li></ul><ul><li>News stories </li></ul><ul><li>Press releases </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific reports </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia entries </li></ul><ul><li>Term papers </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Wills </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cause and effect <ul><li>The defining features of a cause and effect essay are causal chains , careful language, and chronological or emphatic order . </li></ul><ul><li>This rhetorical mode is often required on History exams. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: What led to the outbreak of World War I? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: What led to the Japanese Internment? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Classification and division <ul><li>Classification is the categorization of objects into a larger whole , </li></ul><ul><li>Division is the breaking of a larger whole into smaller parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification essays are often used in the sciences including sociology and psychology. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Comparison and Contrast <ul><li>Compare and contrast is characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison , analogies, and either comparison by object (chunking) or by point (sequential). </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for comparison: both geographic areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison point by point- Caribbean cultures, former Spanish colonies, racial mixture due to historical events, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast point by point- Size, relationship to the United States, level of development, Citizenship and migration patterns. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Block Arrangement (four paragraphs) <ul><li>I. Introduction in which you state your purpose which is to discuss the differences between vacationing in the mountains or at the beach </li></ul><ul><li>II. Mountain A.  Climate B.  Types of Activities  C.  Location  </li></ul><ul><li>III. Beach A.  Climate B.  Types of Activities  C.  Location  </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Conclusion </li></ul>
  20. 20. Point-by-Point or Alternating Arrangement (five paragraphs) <ul><li>I. Introduction in which you state your purpose which is to discuss differences between vacationing in the mountains or at the beach </li></ul><ul><li>II. First difference between mountains and beaches is climate A.  Mountains B.  Beach </li></ul><ul><li>III. Second difference between mountains and beaches are types of activities A.  Mountains B.  Beach </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Third difference between mountains and beaches is the location A.  Mountains B.  Beach </li></ul><ul><li>V. Conclusion </li></ul>
  21. 21. Definition <ul><li>Definition essays explain a term's meaning. Some are written about concrete terms, such as trees, oceans, and dogs, while others talk about more abstract terms, such as liberty, happiness, and virtue. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be Latino? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is cultural diffusion? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Process Analysis <ul><li>Process analysis essays explain the “process” of how to do something, or how something was done. </li></ul><ul><li>An action is broken down into steps and explained. </li></ul>
  23. 23. References <ul><li>www.wikipedia.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080901114401AAFpmXD </li></ul>