Grading system in higher education courses

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Grading system in higher education courses

  1. 1. Credit and semester PROGRAMME ON GRADING
  2. 2. RESTRUCTURING U G EDUCATION <ul><li>The U G reforms through:- </li></ul><ul><li>1. SEMESTERISATION </li></ul><ul><li>2. CHOICE BASED CREDITS </li></ul><ul><li>3. CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>4. GRADING </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>GRADING </li></ul><ul><li>AN </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESSMENT TOOL </li></ul><ul><li>FOR </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENT’S PERFORMANCE </li></ul>
  4. 4. Performance Assessment Tools <ul><li>MARKS </li></ul><ul><li>GRADES </li></ul>
  5. 5. DISTORTIONS IN ASSESSMENT <ul><li>Due To... </li></ul><ul><li>Subjectivity of the Examiner </li></ul><ul><li>Use of fine scale for raw assessment </li></ul>
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES OF GRADING <ul><li>Reducing subjectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Raw assessment on a raw scale </li></ul><ul><li>Improving quality of assessment </li></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF GRADING <ul><li>Direct Grading </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Grading </li></ul>
  8. 8. DIRECT GRADING <ul><li>Each answer is graded with letters </li></ul><ul><li>Grade letters are A, B, C, D and E </li></ul>
  9. 9. INDIRECT GRADING <ul><li>Two types of indirect grading… </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Grading: Marks awarded on a 101 point scale are converted to a 5/7/9 point scale </li></ul><ul><li>Relative grading: The scores awarded are normalized for proper distribution on the basis of pre-fixed pattern </li></ul>
  10. 10. INDIRECT GRADING: ABSOLUTE <ul><li>Marks awarded are classified into different grades </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to distortions who score close to the margins </li></ul>
  11. 11. INDIRECT GRADING: RELATIVE <ul><li>Performance of students is compared with that of his peers </li></ul><ul><li>Graded to ensure normal distribution in performance assessment </li></ul><ul><li>A pre-fixed pattern may not represent the actual academic and intellectual ability </li></ul>
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES OF DIRECT GRADING <ul><li>Simplifies the process of assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Makes a raw assessment on a raw scale </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a uniform scale for the assessment of quality </li></ul><ul><li>Separates assessment of quality and range </li></ul>
  13. 13. MECHANICS OF DIRECT GRADING <ul><li>Assessment of quality on a five point scale for each question </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning weightage depending on the nature of the question </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of weighted average </li></ul><ul><li>Certification on a seven point scale </li></ul>
  14. 14. PROCESS OF DIRECT GRADING (1) <ul><li>Each answer is graded with letters </li></ul><ul><li>Weightage is then given based on the range of the question </li></ul><ul><li>Grades and weightages are assigned numerical values </li></ul><ul><li>The weighted grade points arrived by multiplying grade points by weightage </li></ul>
  15. 15. PROCESS OF DIRECT GRADING (2 ) <ul><li>Sum of weighted grade points is divided by the sum of the weightage to arrive Grade Point Average (GPA) for the course </li></ul><ul><li>Combining grades of different courses gives Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of an entire programme </li></ul>
  16. 16. LETTER GRADES AND GRADE POINTS LETTER GRADES GRADE POINTS A 4 B 3 C 2 D 1 E 0
  17. 17. GRADES AND GRADE POINTS (5 point scale) Grade Grade Points Grade Range A 4 3.5 to 4 B 3 2.5 to 3.49 C 2 1.5 to 2.49 D 1 0.5 to 1.49 E 0 < 0.5
  18. 18. WEIGHTAGE <ul><li>Essays / Long answer questions : 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Short essays / Problems : 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Short answer questions : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>B unch of 4 Objective type questions : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Weightage can also vary from component to component within a subject (Theory/Practical) OR Internal/External) OR subject to subject (Core/Complementary) </li></ul>
  19. 19. CALCULATION OF WEIGHTED AVERAGE The weighted grade points of an answer = Grade Points × Weightage Type of Question Grade awarded Grade point Weightage Weighted grade points Essay A 4 4 16 Short essay B 3 2 6 Short answer A 4 1 4 Objective type A 4 1 4
  20. 20. ARITHMETIC OF GRADING: Objective type (Example) Type of questions Qn. Nos Grade awarded Grade points Weightage Weighted grade points Objective 1-4 B 3 1 3 5-8 A 4 1 4 9-12 A 4 1 4 13-16 C 2 1 2
  21. 21. ARITHMETIC OF GRADING: Short Questions (Example) Type of question Qn. Nos Grade awarded Grade points Weightage Weighted grade points Short Answer 17 C 2 1 2 18 B 3 1 3 19 A 4 1 4 20 D 1 1 1 21 A 4 1 4
  22. 22. ARITHMETIC OF GRADING: Short Essay (Example) Type of question Qn. Nos Grade awarded Grade points Weightage Weighted grade points Short Essay 22 B 3 2 6 23 E 0 2 0 24 B 3 2 6 25 A 4 2 8
  23. 23. ARITHMETIC OF GRADING: Long Essay (Example) Type of question Qn. Nos Grade awarded Grade points Weightage Weighted grade points Long Essay 26 B 3 4 12 27 D 1 4 4
  24. 24. Calculation of Overall Grade of a model answer paper Type of questions Qn. Nos Grade awarded Grade points Weightage Weighted grade points Objective 1-4 B 3 1 3 5-8 A 4 1 4 9-12 A 4 1 4 13-16 C 2 1 2 Short Answer 17 C 2 1 2 18 B 3 1 3 19 A 4 1 4 20 D 1 1 1 21 A 4 1 4 Short essay 22 B 3 2 6 23 E 0 2 0 24 B 3 2 6 25 A 4 2 8 Long essay 26 B 3 4 12 27 D 1 4 4 Total 25 63 Calculation : Overall grade of an answer paper = Sum of weighted grade points ÷ Sum of the weightage = 63 ÷ 25= 2.52= Grade B
  25. 25. CALCULATING OVERALL GRADE OF A COURSE (Theory)
  26. 26. CALCULATING OVERALL GRADE OF A COURSE
  27. 27. SEVEN POINT SCALE FOR CERTIFICATION Grade Grade range A + 3.8 to 4 A 3.5 to 3.79 B + 3 to 3.49 B 2.5 to 2.99 C + 2to 2.49 C 1.5 to 1.99 D .5 to 1.49
  28. 28. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>Minimum of D grade is required in all courses </li></ul><ul><li>C+ above is required for awarding degree certificate </li></ul>

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