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  1. 1. FLORA NATURA proudly presents
  2. 2. Environmental Pollution
  3. 3. Pollution <ul><li>An undesirable and unfavorable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of land air and water that harmfully affect both plant and animal life including that of man. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused mainly by population growth, urbanization and technological advances . </li></ul><ul><li>Things that cause pollution are called pollutants </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Solid wastes ( sewage, soot, dust etc. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Gases (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial wastes (acids, alkalies) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultures pollutants (pesticides, herbicides) </li></ul><ul><li>Metals (Iron, Zinc, Mercury) </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive substances </li></ul><ul><li>Oils </li></ul>Main pollutants
  5. 5. Two Types of Pollutants <ul><li>Biodegradable pollutants : Those which are rapidly decomposed by natural processes. Eg. Domestic sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Non-degradable pollutants: That degrade very slowly into natural environment. Eg. Plastic, aluminum cans, glass, DDT, mercuric salts etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Classification based on environment </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Atmospheric pollution </li></ul><ul><li>2. Water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>3. Soil pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Classification based on nature of pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>1. Chemical pollution </li></ul><ul><li>2. Noise pollution </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pollution by radio activity. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Atmospheric Pollution <ul><li>Contamination of atmospheric air due to accumulation of harmful or toxic materials. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Atmospheric pollution <ul><li>Natural sources </li></ul><ul><li>1. Volcanic eruption </li></ul><ul><li>2. Forest fire </li></ul><ul><li>3. Decaying organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>4. Sand storms </li></ul><ul><li>Man-made pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Only 0.05% of total atmospheric pollutants. Caused by the outputs of industries and automobiles </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Gaseous pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Carbon monoxide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Nitrogen oxide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Sulphur dioxide etc . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid and liquid particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Large particles that easily settle down in air. (sand and water drops) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.Fine particles that float in air for long time (dust and mist). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Finer particles that never settle (smoke, aerosol and fumes) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Primary pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Those emanating from a source </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides etc . </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by combustions of primary pollutants in atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Atmospheric reactions of hydro-carbons and nitrous oxide, peroxy acetyl nitrate </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sources of Air Pollution <ul><li>Stationary combustion sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion of coal and petroleum produces CO,SO 2 ,various Nitrogen compounds and fly ash containing trace metals like arsenic, lead and mercury. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete burning of petroleum produces soot and other toxic gases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxides of sulphur react with atmosphere producing sulphuric acid which forms acid rain or acid precipitation. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Mobile combustion sources </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile is a major source of pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Their exhaust contain carbon monoxide(77.2%), Oxides of nitrogen(7.7%) and hydrocarbons(13.7%) </li></ul><ul><li>Photochemical reactions on Oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons produce photochemical smog which contains Peroxy acetyl nitrate and Ozone. </li></ul><ul><li>Tetra ethyl lead in petroleum produces various lead compounds. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Industrial processing and other sources </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke from factories </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds contain Chorine and Fluorine used in propellants, refrigerants and in aerosol cans produce toxic outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Solvents in spray painting, dyeing, printing etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Blasting, drilling, crushing, mixing etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effects of air pollution <ul><li>Human health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergic reaction and bronchial asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co is respiratory poison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO impairs functioning of lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SO 2 penetrates tissues and causes mouth drying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons and soot are carcinogenic </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Damage to vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Injury to animals </li></ul><ul><li>Deterioration of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic insults </li></ul><ul><li>Change in climate </li></ul>Other effects
  16. 16. Control Measures <ul><ul><li>Removal of pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of pollutants into harmless materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce sulphur content before burning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of energy sources other than fossil fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal measures from authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased planting of vegetation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Water Pollution <ul><ul><li>Contamination of water by addition of undesirable organic, inorganic or biological substances to water sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural sources: soil erosion, leaching of minerals from of rocks and decay matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial effluents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys ecosystem and affects human health </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Sources of water pollution <ul><li>Community waste waters </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural sources </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Under ground water </li></ul><ul><li>pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Marine pollution </li></ul>
  19. 19. Effects of water pollution <ul><li>Mercury poisoning causes Minamata disease in man. </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic nitrates promote excessive plant growth in lakes and reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides are harmful to aquatic life </li></ul><ul><li>Organochlorines pass through food chain to animals and is harmful </li></ul><ul><li>Dyes and inorganic compounds induce colour change in animals </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Increased turbidity due to suspended particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Unpleasant odours and bad taste </li></ul><ul><li>Soaps and alkalies cause foam formation </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication provides rich growth of micro organisms that consume dissolved oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal pollution cause damage to aquatic life </li></ul>
  21. 21. Control of water pollution <ul><li>Treatment of garbage and sewage. </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction of useful substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of temperature of waste water. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the use of non - degradable pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper enactment of laws by government . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Soil pollution <ul><li>Undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological property which adversely affects its productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by dumping of wastes, agrochemicals and as indirect result of air pollution </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sources of Soil Pollution <ul><li>Domestic wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Excretory products </li></ul><ul><li>Salination </li></ul>
  24. 24. Control of soil pollution <ul><li>Proper disposal of industrial and agricultural wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling and recovery of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the manufacture and use of chemical fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the use of pesticides </li></ul>
  25. 25. Land degradation <ul><li>The productivity of soil is going down. The main reasons are </li></ul><ul><li>Soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental activities </li></ul>
  26. 26. Control measures <ul><li>Control soil erosion and floods by restoring forest and grass cover to the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation and mixed crops </li></ul><ul><li>Improved drainage facilities to prevent salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Mulching to prevent sand shifting. </li></ul><ul><li>Belt of trees as wind breakers </li></ul>
  27. 27. Radioactive Pollution
  28. 28. Radioactive Pollution <ul><li>Physical pollution that affects air, water and soil. Caused by ionizing radiations of harmful nature emitted from disintegrating atomic nuclei. </li></ul><ul><li>The natural sources include cosmic rays that reaches the earth surface and radiations from radium 224, uranium 235 thorium 232 etc </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sources of Radiations <ul><li>Nuclear weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Reactors and Nuclear fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive isotopes used for scientific research( carbon 14, iodine 125 etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Waste waters containing these wastes </li></ul><ul><li>X-rays used in medical practices </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra violet rays present in solar radiations </li></ul>
  30. 30. Effects <ul><li>Depolymerization of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Denaturation of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Induce mutations and cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive substances in food chain cause retarded growth, leukemia and bone cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes sterility </li></ul><ul><li>Increases infant mortality rate </li></ul>
  31. 31. Control measures <ul><li>Prevention of leakage of radioactive elements from nuclear reactors. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper storage and disposal of nuclear wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Regular monitoring and high risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the use of non harmful energy sources </li></ul><ul><li>Global understanding about nuclear explosions </li></ul>
  32. 32. Noise pollution
  33. 33. Noise pollution <ul><li>Unwanted high pitch sound that pollutes the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum tolerable intensity of sound is 85 decibels </li></ul><ul><li>The main sources are automobiles, aero planes, loudspeakers, industries and other electro-mechanical devices. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Effects of noise pollution <ul><li>Damage to ear drum and impairment to hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Damages heart, liver and brain </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional disturbances and behavioral changes </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to anxiety and stress </li></ul>
  35. 35. Control measures <ul><li>Design machines with minimum sound </li></ul><ul><li>Proper lubrication maintenance of machines and installation of silencers. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of sound absorbing materials </li></ul><ul><li>Use of noise protective devices </li></ul><ul><li>Acoustic Zoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep plenty of vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper enforcement of legal measures. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Thank-you very much for your co-operation . <ul><li>A slide show presented by Nature Club, Mahatma Gandhi University College of Teacher Education , </li></ul><ul><li>Flora Natura </li></ul>