The philosophical basis of education emphasizes that philosophy is the end and education is the means to achieve that end. In other words, philosophy determines the goal of life and education tries to achieve the goal through its aims and curriculum.
Philosophical bases of curricu
Philosophy is the end and education is
the means to achieve that end
Philosophy determines the goal of life and
education tries to achieve the goal
Curriculum is positively correlated with the
needs and requirements of the society
The contents of curriculum change to suit
the prevalent ideologies and social ways of
Philosophy provides curriculum specialists with a framework for broad issues and
tasks, in general what experiences and activities to stress in schools and
Relationship between Education and
Philosophy in the modern world
The basic relationship between philosophy and education
•It is philosophy, that provides the purpose or the aim and it is education
which makes it practical.
•Philosophy shows the way and education moves on in that direction.
•Education is the modification of behaviour, the direction in which,
modification to be carried out is determined by philosophy.
•Education is a laboratory where philosophic theories and speculations
are tested and made concrete. Education may, therefore, be rightly
called applied philosophy.
•Philosophy is wisdom; education transmits that wisdom from one
generation to the other.
•Philosophy is in reality the theory of education.
Philosophy formulates the method, education its process.
Metaphysics or the discussion about
the nature of ultimate reality and the
Epistemology or the theory of
Ethics, the theory of morality
Aesthetics or the discussion of beauty
Logic or the study of ideal method of
thought and reasoning
• The focus in the curriculum is classical
subjects, literary analysis and considers
curriculum as constant
• The essential skills of the 3 R's and
essential subjects of English, Science,
History, Math and Foreign Language is the
focus of the curriculum
• The curriculum is focused on students'
interest, human problems and affairs.
• The subjects are interdisciplinary,
integrative and interactive
• The focus of the curriculum is on present
and future trends and issues of national
and international interests
Schools of Philosophy and their impact on education
Teacher is considered to
be an authority and serves
as a living ideal
subjects called ‘Humanities’ like
History, Literature, Philosophy,
Culture and region and various
fine arts and physical education
Science and mathematics too find place to
stimulate intellectual development
Books are considered as treasure
house of knowledge
Mind or spirit is
Matter is everything
Sense organs are gateways of knowledge
Philosophy of life and philosophy of education both are
determined by the interaction between man and his
Values remain unchanged
Developing the rational person
Subjects are chosen based on their characteristics
Physical sciences and mathematics are given priority
Study of literature
All components of general education
including language study, physical education,
music, drawing, paintings etc.
Vocational education for higher classes
nt - goals
is final or
child for any
Reality is ‘Nature’
Our senses are the
‘learning by doing’ is
Basically all organisms
are innately pure and
Science subjects with
nature are given
•It recommends for
Succeed in the struggle for
Autonomous development of
Redirection and sublimation of
Education in accordance with the
nature of the child
Every society expects its schools:
•To preserve the culture and transmit it to the
young children (socialization)
•To help learners to meet the pressing social
•To prepare the learners for the future society
The society influences the school curriculum
only those subjects and activities should be
included in the curriculum which is useful from the
point of view of society.
School curriculum is expected to put emphasis
•Training and research
•Specialized skills for new work culture
•Discovery and encouragement of creativity
•Preparation of the environment for the future
•Small family norm, delayed marriage, responsible
parenthood, status of women attitudes towards family
•Environmental concepts should also find a place in
•Afforestation and Deforestation
•Conservation of forests and animals
•Conservation of rain and water
•Soil erosion, preservation of green lands
•Water, air and chemical pollutions
Population growth emphasizes the
following in school curriculum
Psychological bases of curriculum
Education is for the child and not that child is for
Child is the centre of educational process
Child develops through various stages - curriculum should be
Each child to develop along his natural path and progress
at his own speed
The curriculum should contain various sports, games,
Skinner and Thorndike are the important behavioural psychologists.
Behavioural psychology deals with observable responses or behaviour of
•Instructional training modules
•Computer Assisted Instruction
Cognitive Psychology deals with the thinking process of the learners. Piaget,
Bruner, Gagne and Guilford are the chief cognitive psychologists
•Develop divergent thinking, reflective
thinking and critical thinking
•Develop the problem solving skill
•Develop proper perception
Humanistic Psychology is considered to be the recent learning theory. Maslow
and Rogers are the important humanistic psychologists
Positive attitude and feelings
Freedom to learn
Becoming a person
Simple learning experiences are recommended for the nursery
school children, whereas advanced and abstract ideas and concepts
are recommended for high school children.
Criteria of selection of
Orientation of democratic values
Principles of organizing the selected content
The arrangement of contents in a natural
sequence is called logical organization. The
contents are logically organized in the following
•Sequence from the known to the unknown
•Sequence from the simple to the complex
•Sequence from the concrete to the abstract
•Sequence from observation to reasoning
•Sequence from a whole to a more detailed view
According to this approach, children in the primary
classes begin to develop simple generalizations and
as they progress through high classes, they work with
difficult arrangement of information.
•The same facts are repeated again and again
•Hurried and temporary references will not be helpful
in understanding complex problems.
The nature of the topics varies in accordance with the
age, ability and interests of the children.
It discusses all the aspects of the problem and gives an
overall view of that particular problem.
•It provides a solution for dealing with vast material in a
logical and rational fashion.
•It helps the pupils to understand the facts
•It can be adapted according to the age, ability and
aptitude of the children.
The ‘unit’ is an organization of various activities,
experiences and types of learning around a central problem
or purpose, developed co-operatively by a group of pupils
under teacher leadership; involves planning, execution of
plans and evaluation of results.
Characteristics of the unit
•It is a purposeful learning experience
•It has significant content
•It is comprehensive enough to have scope and unity
•It involves pupils through active participation
•It develops competent skills.
i.The unit method is well suited for the growth and
development of the abilities and skills
ii.The organization of experiences and materials into
units facilitates the child learning significant
relationships, concepts and processes.
iii.The unit, because of its flexibility provides facility in
adopting instruction to individual differences of
iv.In a unit, the needs of the learner are given top
The arrangement of the material in ‘modules’ is called
The contents in a module are organized in such a way
that students can study in groups or individually.
There is a sequence in the modules from one year to
the next. Within a year, a student can learn several
modules having different difficulty levels.
In general, modules are well structured self instructional
programme containing self study materials, enrichment
exercises, self tests and remedial exercises.