Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Bases of curriculum


Published on

The philosophical basis of education emphasizes that philosophy is the end and education is the means to achieve that end. In other words, philosophy determines the goal of life and education tries to achieve the goal through its aims and curriculum.

Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

Bases of curriculum

  1. 1. Philosophical bases of curricu Philosophy is the end and education is the means to achieve that end Philosophy determines the goal of life and education tries to achieve the goal Curriculum is positively correlated with the needs and requirements of the society The contents of curriculum change to suit the prevalent ideologies and social ways of thinking Philosophy provides curriculum specialists with a framework for broad issues and tasks, in general what experiences and activities to stress in schools and classrooms.
  2. 2. Relationship between Education and Philosophy in the modern world
  3. 3. The basic relationship between philosophy and education •It is philosophy, that provides the purpose or the aim and it is education which makes it practical. •Philosophy shows the way and education moves on in that direction. •Education is the modification of behaviour, the direction in which, modification to be carried out is determined by philosophy. •Education is a laboratory where philosophic theories and speculations are tested and made concrete. Education may, therefore, be rightly called applied philosophy. •Philosophy is wisdom; education transmits that wisdom from one generation to the other. •Philosophy is in reality the theory of education. Philosophy formulates the method, education its process.
  4. 4. Metaphysics or the discussion about the nature of ultimate reality and the cosmos Epistemology or the theory of knowledge Ethics, the theory of morality Aesthetics or the discussion of beauty Logic or the study of ideal method of thought and reasoning
  5. 5. • The focus in the curriculum is classical subjects, literary analysis and considers curriculum as constant Perennialism • The essential skills of the 3 R's and essential subjects of English, Science, History, Math and Foreign Language is the focus of the curriculum Essentialism • The curriculum is focused on students' interest, human problems and affairs. • The subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive Progressivism • The focus of the curriculum is on present and future trends and issues of national and international interests Reconstructionis m Philosophicalbasesof curriculum
  6. 6. Schools of Philosophy and their impact on education Teacher is considered to be an authority and serves as a living ideal subjects called ‘Humanities’ like History, Literature, Philosophy, Culture and region and various fine arts and physical education are included Science and mathematics too find place to stimulate intellectual development Books are considered as treasure house of knowledge Mind or spirit is the essential world Promoting the intellectual growth and the self realization Subject centred curriculum Should attain mastery
  7. 7. Realism Matter is everything Sense organs are gateways of knowledge Philosophy of life and philosophy of education both are determined by the interaction between man and his environment Values remain unchanged Developing the rational person Subjects are chosen based on their characteristics Physical sciences and mathematics are given priority Study of literature All components of general education including language study, physical education, music, drawing, paintings etc. Vocational education for higher classes
  8. 8. Pragmatism Change, growth and developme nt - goals of life Advocates scientific method to solve man’s problems No knowledge is final or eternal Human experience alone is real Man creates his own values life centred curriculum Aim of education is not to prepare the child for any future life
  9. 9. Naturalism Reality is ‘Nature’ itself Our senses are the gateways of knowledge ‘learning by doing’ is given precedence Basically all organisms are innately pure and good Science subjects with nature are given •It recommends for Self expression Succeed in the struggle for existence  Autonomous development of individuality Sensory training Redirection and sublimation of natural instincts Education in accordance with the nature of the child
  10. 10. Every society expects its schools: •To preserve the culture and transmit it to the young children (socialization) •To help learners to meet the pressing social needs’ •To prepare the learners for the future society The society influences the school curriculum only those subjects and activities should be included in the curriculum which is useful from the point of view of society.
  11. 11. Leisure Culture Home Membership Occupation Skills
  12. 12. School curriculum is expected to put emphasis on: •Training and research •Specialized skills for new work culture •Discovery and encouragement of creativity •Preparation of the environment for the future •Peace Education •Computer Education
  13. 13. Human Ecology •Small family norm, delayed marriage, responsible parenthood, status of women attitudes towards family planning •Environmental concepts should also find a place in school curriculum. •Afforestation and Deforestation •Conservation of forests and animals •Conservation of rain and water •Soil erosion, preservation of green lands •Water, air and chemical pollutions Population growth emphasizes the following in school curriculum
  14. 14. Psychological bases of curriculum Education is for the child and not that child is for education Child is the centre of educational process Child develops through various stages - curriculum should be so flexible Each child to develop along his natural path and progress at his own speed The curriculum should contain various sports, games, creative activities
  15. 15. Skinner and Thorndike are the important behavioural psychologists. Behavioural psychology deals with observable responses or behaviour of the learners •Micro Teaching •Instructional training modules •Individualized learning’ •Direct instruction’ •Mastery learning •Computer Assisted Instruction •Bahavioural objectives
  16. 16. Cognitive Psychology deals with the thinking process of the learners. Piaget, Bruner, Gagne and Guilford are the chief cognitive psychologists •Develop divergent thinking, reflective thinking and critical thinking •Develop imagination’ •Develop the problem solving skill •Develop creativity •Develop proper perception
  17. 17. Humanistic Psychology Humanistic Psychology is considered to be the recent learning theory. Maslow and Rogers are the important humanistic psychologists Positive attitude and feelings Self actualization Freedom to learn Value clarification Becoming a person Self direction
  18. 18. Simple learning experiences are recommended for the nursery school children, whereas advanced and abstract ideas and concepts are recommended for high school children.
  19. 19. Instructional objectives Contents Teacher methodology’ Evaluation Curriculum content
  20. 20. Criteria of selection of content Self-sufficiency Significance Validity Interest Utility Learnability Feasibility Orientation of democratic values
  21. 21. Content organization Principles of organizing the selected content Sequencing Continuity Integration Logical organization Psychological organization Concentric organization Topical organization Unit organization Modular organization
  22. 22. Logical organization The arrangement of contents in a natural sequence is called logical organization. The contents are logically organized in the following ways •Sequence from the known to the unknown •Sequence from the simple to the complex •Sequence from the concrete to the abstract •Sequence from observation to reasoning •Sequence from a whole to a more detailed view
  23. 23. According to this approach, children in the primary classes begin to develop simple generalizations and as they progress through high classes, they work with difficult arrangement of information. •The same facts are repeated again and again •Hurried and temporary references will not be helpful in understanding complex problems. Concentric organization Limitations
  24. 24. Topical organization The nature of the topics varies in accordance with the age, ability and interests of the children. It discusses all the aspects of the problem and gives an overall view of that particular problem. Merits •It provides a solution for dealing with vast material in a logical and rational fashion. •It helps the pupils to understand the facts •It can be adapted according to the age, ability and aptitude of the children.
  25. 25. Unit organization The ‘unit’ is an organization of various activities, experiences and types of learning around a central problem or purpose, developed co-operatively by a group of pupils under teacher leadership; involves planning, execution of plans and evaluation of results. Characteristics of the unit •It is a purposeful learning experience •It has significant content •It is comprehensive enough to have scope and unity •It involves pupils through active participation •It develops competent skills.
  26. 26. Advantages i.The unit method is well suited for the growth and development of the abilities and skills ii.The organization of experiences and materials into units facilitates the child learning significant relationships, concepts and processes. iii.The unit, because of its flexibility provides facility in adopting instruction to individual differences of children iv.In a unit, the needs of the learner are given top consideration.
  27. 27. Modular Organization The arrangement of the material in ‘modules’ is called modular organization. The contents in a module are organized in such a way that students can study in groups or individually. There is a sequence in the modules from one year to the next. Within a year, a student can learn several modules having different difficulty levels. In general, modules are well structured self instructional programme containing self study materials, enrichment exercises, self tests and remedial exercises.