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Building maintenance

  1. 1. BUILDING MAINTENANCE Civil & Structural Engineers Approach Ir. Abdul Aziz Abas MIEM, P.Eng., MIEAust, C.PEng, APEC Eng, Int. PE (MY)
  2. 2. PREFACE Preparation for life… • As a module of the Semester 7 of engineering course for the Bachelor of Civil Engineering programme, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Shah Alam This “Engineers in Society” programme will provide basic overview of all aspects of Building Maintenance from Civil Engineer’s prospective & approach This programme is designed to enhance knowledge and skills required in addition to basic civil engineering knowledge. It equips the prospective graduates with appropriate skills in building maintenance and management.
  3. 3. Contents Overview of Civil engineering and facts Engineers Responsibility Definition of Building Maintenance, Objectives & Gain Building Maintenance Planning Maintenance Factor & Defects Structural & Infrastructural Maintenance Summary Introduction Brief discussion on Importance of Maintenance Planning Engineer’s Responsibility, Approach & Methodology for infra & servicesMaintenance Factor during Design Stage Summary of discussion and Q & A Role of Engineers PREFACE Defects due to Design, Construction and Materials Failures Brief discussion on Structural & Infrastructural Maintenance Brief discussion on Building Defects And Effect on Maintenance
  4. 4. Introduction
  5. 5. Overview INTRODUCTION Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment. FACTS • Engineer deals with facts and figures • Engineer converts ideas into reality • Engineer’s responsibility & liability is for life (has no expiry date except death) • Engineer faces huge challenges to defend his works as “anybody” has capability to query • Engineer deals with safety of properties and lives
  6. 6. A. SPECIALIST ENGINEERS • Geotechnical Engineer • Earthworks Engineer • Roads Engineer • Drainage Engineer • Water Supply Engineer • Sewerage Engineer • Marine / Port Engineer • Structural Engineer • Specialist Knowledgeable in less subjects but an expert Of specific subject(s) Knowledgeable in many subjects but not an expert Of any subject CIVIL ENGINEERS But, Managers / Decision Makers come under this category INTRODUCTION Overview B. GENERAL ENGINEERS • Planning Engineer • Site Engineer • Maintenance Engineer • Administrative Engineer
  7. 7. Overview INTRODUCTION “Engineers in society” plays roles which on first impression are not linked to their professional training. The training received as an engineer is part of the reasons which an engineer can display his versatility. FACTS • Engineers as Managers • Engineer as Lawyers, Salesmen, entrepreneurs, etc • Engineers as Scientists • Engineers as Experts • Engineers as Academics • Engineers as Politicians
  8. 8. Overview INTRODUCTION Engineers owe responsibility to • the general public: safety, environment • direct consumers of the project • fellow engineers • clients e.g. government, industry
  9. 9. Overview INTRODUCTION Engineers owe duty • to themselves • which are inherent in their works and institution to which they belong • legal requirements: professional negligence • contractual duties • “the greater God”
  10. 10. Overview CHINTRODUCTION Engineers must have exposure to other fields of knowledge and skills in order to be able to properly discharge his functions: • communication and presentation skills: oral and written • economics and finance • law • presentation of self!
  11. 11. Overview INTRODUCTION Paradigm shift: engineers should not merely respond to need: they should create or anticipate the needs and be leaders of society. Foresights for “unfulfilled needs”.
  12. 12. Building Maintenance
  13. 13. Building maintenance is the combination of technical and administrative actions to ensure the items and elements of a building in an acceptable standard to perform its required function. BUILDING MAINTENANCE Definition
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION 8 Classification Condition-based Maintenance is maintenance when need arises BUILDING MAINTENANCE Value driven maintenance is a maintenance management methodology Corrective maintenance is required when an item has failed or worn out Planned maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent agent Predictive maintenance prediction when maintenance should be performed Preventive maintenance performed specifically to prevent faults from occurring Proactive maintenance is a maintenance strategy for stabilizing the reliability of equipment Reliability centered maintenance is a process to ensure that assets continue to do what their users require
  15. 15. Objectives INTRODUCTION  To satisfy Lender / Insurer requirement, to provide a safe, secure and efficient working & living environment and to avoid deterioration of physical assets  To maximize the aesthetic and economic values of a building as well as increase the health and safety of the occupants  To extend the useful life of the buildings and prevent premature capital outlay for replacement BUILDING MAINTENANCE
  16. 16. Gain INTRODUCTION The benefits can be short term or long term and can be reflected in the areas of physical, financial or human resources. A. Maintenance will preserve the physical characteristics of a building and its services. • fewer breakdowns and lower future maintenance costs, • higher productivity, • less wastage of materials and improve organization sales revenue. B. The improved condition of the building gives positive effect to the users resulting in lower staff turnover, better customer relation and public image. BUILDING MAINTENANCE
  17. 17. Maintenance Planning
  18. 18. MAINTENANCE PLANNING  minor problem which can grow into a major one through neglect, and which can be multiplied in many buildings  All new buildings , as a matter of course, should be provided with a maintenance manual  many buildings are destroyed not by outside forces such as weathering factors like heavy rains or drought but by insufficient/improper design during the design stage, through bad housekeeping, inadequate maintenance and neglect during its full operation. Maintenance Planning  Maintenance planning should start at the design stage of any building project and should continue throughout the life of that building
  19. 19. Poor maintenance has resulted in damage and deterioration to this building MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  20. 20. the deterioration of buildings due to the lack of maintenance could lead to future financial burdens, pose legal and other industrial relations issues and affect the delivery of services It was important that buildings continue to be properly maintained to ensure that they can function as efficiently and effectively as possible Identifying building problems and understanding of building materials and its mechanical and electrical systems are aspects of the process of preserving and conserving building quality and to ensure the efficiencies of the facilities Is building maintenance important? …… why? MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  21. 21. Building maintenance can also be categorised according to who carries out the maintenance work: housekeeping maintenance carried out by property managers; or second line maintenance carried out by specialist building trades people. Category MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  22. 22. Serious defects in existing dwellings in 2000, United Kingdom Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE) C&S Engineering Design Related M&E Engineering Design Related MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  23. 23. Occurrence of defect by element in mainly non- residential properties, 1997 Source : Building Research Establishment (BRE) for the Construction Quality Forum C&S Engineering Design Related C&S and M&E Engineering Design Related MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  24. 24. Faults in new-build housing Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE) C&S Engineering Design Related C&S and M&E Engineering Design Related MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  25. 25. Crack & Settlement 50% Defective damp-proof 33% Durability of masonry 17% Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE) Require Geotechnical Engineers input Substructure • most foundation difficulties arise from weak and compressible soils and exceptionally heavy loads • Trouble may be caused by either the imposed load or independent movement of the ground • Approximately 50% housing substructure faults relate to cracking and settlement, 33% to defective damp-proof courses and 17% to durability of masonry below damp-proof courses. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  26. 26. Distribution of defects by building type Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE) MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  27. 27. When buildings are neglected, defects can occur which may result in extensive and avoidable damage to the building fabric or equipment. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  28. 28. Why have a maintenance plan? The main reason for a maintenance plan is that it is the most cost-effective way to maintain the value of an asset. The advantages of a plan are: • the property is organised and maintained in a systematic rather than ad-hoc way; • building services can be monitored to assist their efficient use; • the standard and presentation of the property can be maintained; • subjective decision making and emergency corrective maintenance are minimised. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  29. 29. Probability of failure prevention Frequency0 1 Probability of failure prevention Reduce frequency Reduce reliability “Danger” zone Impact of Preventive Maintenance Frequency on Reliability Source : Oniqua Enterprise Analytics MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  30. 30. Diagram from Preventive Maintenance of Buildings, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991. Preventive maintenance costs markedly less than repairing extensive damage or building failures MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  31. 31. Periodic inspection survey • All properties should be inspected at regular intervals to identify any deterioration and required maintenance work, including cleaning • maintenance was inappropriate or if there are design or material defects • All records should maintained for reference MAINTENANCE PLANNING • Advantageous to record the long-term performance of repair materials and procedures in order to assess their suitability for future maintenance work
  32. 32. Maintenance review The effectiveness of the maintenance work shall be reviewed regularly. An important part of the maintenance planning for a building is to improve the previous decisions to maintain the asset so that subsequent maintenance expenditure will be more effective Issues to consider when reviewing the work include: • was it necessary or appropriate • the timing and standard • time frame of the planned maintenance work MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  33. 33. Preparing a budget Annual budgeted expenditure on maintenance can be of three kinds: committed expenditure, which includes tasks that occur every year as part of planned maintenance, such as maintenance contracts; variable expenditure, which includes regular tasks within an overall program of planned maintenance that may not occur every year. The building manager exercises some discretion and decides on priorities for these tasks; managed expenditure, which relates to unplanned maintenance works carried out entirely at the building manager’s discretion The aim of a maintenance budget is to reduce managed expenditure over time as far as possible and replace it with variable expenditure. Regular inspections can help by identifying how components are performing and when they might fail. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  34. 34. Preparing a budget Months Expenditure(RM) committed expenditure variable expenditure managed expenditure MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  35. 35. Preparing a program At least two levels of programming are required:  long term maintenance  annual maintenance MAINTENANCE PLANNING annual inspection survey, day log book or diary and work carried over from the previous year. The daily response system for carrying out urgent maintenance should be upgraded annually. cycle, which can extend to 50 – 100 years of a building life
  36. 36. This implies setting priorities for different works. Some of the factors affecting priorities are: Priority MAINTENANCE PLANNING • occupational health and safety • security of premises • statutory requirements • vandalism • increased operating costs • loss of revenue • disruption to business operations • likely failure of critical building fabric • policy decisions.
  38. 38. Maintenance Factor Design Stage
  39. 39. BMAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE  most designers claimed to have knowledge and experience on building maintenance aspects but only few are aware of the importance to consider maintenance factors during design stage  main problems that the maintenance firms are currently facing are caused by building design deficiencies, poor construction quality and poor performance of building which is directly related to functional layout, choice of building material and choice of building equipment  Lack of communication between designer firms and maintenance firms as well as building users or owners resulted in designer firms not fully aware of the maintenance-related problems frequently reported by building owners  neglecting the benefits of designing for ease of maintenance that can prolong the building lifespan, reduce defects rate and therefore reduce maintenance costs. Common Faults by Engineers  to develop awareness and policy from the very early start of project to ensure the concept for ease of maintenance can be understood and implemented successfully
  40. 40. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE importance to consider maintenance of building aspects during design stage for the future performance of the building Concept of design for ease of maintenance
  41. 41. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE Critical factors for designers to take into account during design stage • A design shall be executed perfectly well within the Code of Practice • to practice total building performance audit, benchmarking and quality management procedures in guiding developments towards improved maintainability • Adopt Ease of maintenance concept • To reduce the number of design defects, thus amount of maintenance expenditure can be reduced • Consultation with users, Property / maintenance managers / maintenance consultants in design stage • Consultation with the system manufacturer to provide information relevant to the education and training required for the proper operation and maintenance of the systems being considered
  42. 42. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE o The design life of a structure is that period for which it is designed to fulfill its intended function when inspected and maintained based on agreed procedures o A design life for a structure or component does necessarily mean that the structure will no longer be fit for its purpose at the end of that period o Necessary continue to be serviceable with adequate and regular inspection and routine maintenance Design Life and Serviceability Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Turkey
  43. 43. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE Serviceability of Civil Engineering and Building Works • Exposed structures must be attractive appearance and carefully designed and detailed to ensure long term durability • Structural elements or components not accessible, shall be designed to be maintenance free through intended design lives • Dense, durable high strength concrete must be used in structural elements constructed of concrete • Area of severe exposure, secondary cementitious materials e.g. pulverized fuel ash shall be used if feasible and if it assists to achieve required durability • Reinforced Concrete not exposed to rainwater or ground water must have a minimum characteristic concrete strength of 30 kN/mm^2 • Paint systems for steelwork shall ensure a minimum life of 10 years before full maintenance painting is required • Corrosion protection of non-structural steel items shall be appropriate to the accessibility of the item for inspection and maintenance
  44. 44. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE Durability And Maintenance The design shall ensure, by means of the appropriate choice of structural forms, details and materials, that the structure and building shall remain in a serviceable condition over its life a) Only materials and details having a proven record of durability in similar conditions shall be used b) Access shall be provided for inspection and maintenance to all elements of the structure c) Maintenance requirements shall be minimised by appropriate detailing and the selection of suitable materials d) Structures and Buildings shall be detailed so as to shed surface water in such a way that ponding and streaking do not occur and details which encourage the accumulation of debris shall be avoided e) Details shall be designed for ease of maintenance
  45. 45. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE Access for Inspection And Maintenance The design shall incorporate suitable access provisions for the inspection and maintenance of all structures and equipment
  46. 46. Essential components to ensure efficient operation of the building through its entire life cycle Input to designers by maintenance firms Source: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2006, Thesis of Construction Management MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
  47. 47. Criteria used by designers in specifying materials for buildings Source: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2006, Thesis of Construction Management MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
  48. 48. Building Maintenance Problems Associated with Building Defects Understanding the common cause of building defects and learn to develop a framework for the management of maintenance required to provide a consistent approach to the planning, management and reporting of building maintenance • Defects Due to Design Failures • Defects Due to Construction Failures MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE • Defects Due to Material Failures
  49. 49. Defects Due to Design Failures
  50. 50. Defects within new buildings are areas of non-compliance with the Building Code of Practice, Prevailing Design Codes and published acceptable tolerances and standards. Older buildings, or buildings out of warranty period, may not comply with these standards but must be judged against the standard at the time of construction or refurbishment DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES Historical / Older buildings, or buildings out of warranty period, may not comply with these standards but must be judged against the standard at the time of construction or refurbishment • Settlements • cracked • damaged or deteriorated brick walls • Leaking showers • dampness to a building • excessive sagging to a roof or ceiling • Drainage blockage / backflow • Sewerage blockage / backflow Clients incur huge maintenance & repair costs due to professional negligence
  51. 51. If a building collapses due to structural failures, who is responsible? Civil or Structural Engineer is the primarily responsible for it. But then we need to investigate the construction quality if it is constructed as per design and specifications? Professionals are liable and “most likely” to shoulder repair costs due to professional negligence DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  52. 52. Causes of errors in constructed facilities Design stage Construction stage 1. Fundamental errors in concept 2. Site selection and site development errors 3. Programming deficiencies 4. Design errors 5. Construction errors 6. Material deficiencies 7. Operational errors Service stage DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  53. 53. 1. Fundamental errors in concept The project may have been located in an unusual environment where the prediction of environmental effects was unreliable DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  54. 54. 2. Site selection and site development errors Certain sites are more vulnerable than others to failure. Recognition of the characteristics of particular site conditions through appropriate geotechnical studies can lead to decisions about site selection and site development that reduce the risk of failure DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  55. 55. 3. Programming deficiencies The project does not perform as expected DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  56. 56. 4. Design errors • Errors in design concept • Lack of structural redundancy • Failure to consider a load or a combination of loads • Deficient connection details • Calculation errors • Misuse of computer softwares • Detailing problems, including selection of incompatible materials or assemblies that are not constructable • Failure to consider maintenance requirement or durability • Inadequate or inconsistent specifications for materials or expected quality of work • Unclear communication of design intent Fatal errors DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  57. 57. Defects Due to Construction Failures
  58. 58. Structural Failure is when the basic support system of a form has lost integrity resulting in the inability of the form to perform its original function. DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES Inability to construct a building structure in accordance to drawings & specifications, prevailing Standards and sound engineering practice. Leads to unnecessary building maintenance, Technical & Financial burdens….. Or worst still, Lost of investment & profits / debts What is Construction Failure? What is Stractural Failure?
  59. 59. What cause structural failures on bridges? Either a design flaw or lack of proper maintenance. • Design errors • Construction errors • Excessive scour under pier • Continued flooding • Materials defects • Lack of maintenance • Overloads • Impact Accidents • Landslides / poor soil • Disputed DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  60. 60. Bridge Location Country Date Construction type, use of bridge Reason Number death/injuries Damage Comments ughton Suspension Bridge Broughton, Greater Manchester England 01831-04-12 12 April 1831 Suspension bridge over River Irwell Bolt snapped due to mechanical resonance caused by marching soldiers 20 injured Collapsed at one end, bridge quickly rebuilt and strengthened The rebuilt Broughton Suspension Bridge in 1883 Collapse due to faulty design. Caused "break step" rule to be issued to UK military. Springbrook bridge Between Mishawaka and South Bend, Indiana United States 01859-06-27 27 June 1859 Railroad embankment bridge Washout 41 (some accounts of 60 to 70) Known as the Great Mishawaka Train Wreck or South Bend Train Wreck Wootton bridge collapse Wootton England 01860-06-11 11 June 1860 Cast iron rail bridge cast iron beams cracked and failed 2 killed total damage to floor Wootton bridge after the crash flawed design using unreliable cast iron, failed from a repair Bull bridge accident Ambergate England 01860-09-26 26 September 1860 Cast iron rail bridge cast iron beam cracked and failed 0/0 total collapse of bridge Section of broken girder bridge collapsed while freight train was on it; engine had passed bridge; rear cars had not yet gone onto it; train moving slowly due to f DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  61. 61. Bridge Location Country Date Construction type, use of bridge Reason Number death/injuries Damage Comments Silver Bridge Point Pleasant, WV and Kanauga, OH United States 15 December 1967 Road bridge, chain link suspension Material fault and Corrosion 46/9 Bridge and 37 vehicles destroyed Hayakawa wire bridge Saito, Kyūshū Japan 1980 1980 Wire Bridge (?) Lack of inspection and maintenance for 10 years previous 7 people killed, injuring 15 people Hyatt Regency walkway collapse Kansas City United States 17 July 1981 suspended bridge in hotel interior overload/weak joint/construction error 114/200 walkway destroyed Schoharie Creek Bridge collapse Thruway Bridge Fort Hunter, New York United States 5 April 1987 I-90 New York Thruway over the Schoharie Creek Improper protection of footings by contractor lead to scour of riverbed under footings 10/? Total collapse Highway 19 overpass at Laval (De la Concorde Overpass collapse) Laval, Quebec Canada 30 September 2006 Highway overpass Shear failure due to incorrectly placed rebar, low- quality concrete 5/6 20 meter section gaveway Demolished; was rebuilt, reopened on 13 June 2007 DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  62. 62. 5. Construction errors • Improper construction sequencing • Inadequate temporary support • Excessive construction load • Premature removal of shoring or formwork • Nonconformance to design intent DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  63. 63. 6. Material deficiencies Manufacturing or fabrication defects may exist in the most reliable structural materials DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  64. 64. 7. Operational errors A building, product or application can become defective through age and lack of Maintenance non-compliance with termite systems allow termites to access a building and cause substantial damage including structural damage to timbers DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  65. 65. 7. Others • Act of God (Fire / Flood / Strong wind / Earthquake • Deterioration DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  66. 66. Defects Due to Material Failures
  67. 67. Stainless Steel Band Clamp Failure This Stainless Steel Band Clamp failed because the screw fitting was made from a lower grade alloy SS than that of the band material. Lower grades of SS can suffer accelerated corrosion when placed underground Welding - Typical defect due to less penetration Due to the high degree of N alloying in both the plate and the filler material there is a potential risk of getting porosity in the weld due to either too thick or too thin weld beads, wrong joint preparation and also if the arc is not properly protected. DEFECTS DUE TO MATERIAL FAILURES
  68. 68. Galvanized Pipe Failure at Couplings Plastic Pipe Manufacturing Defect Failure Plastic Pipe manufacturing defects such as this void at the pipe bell made this section of water transmission pipeline fail prematurely. DEFECTS DUE TO MATERIAL FAILURES prevent structural damage with a simple waterproofing re-coat
  69. 69. Structural Maintenance
  70. 70. BUILDING MAINTENANCE – C&S APPROACHSTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE Structural maintenance restores the structural life of the building thereby protecting the asset. The use of the building and exposure to atmosphere increase wear and tear and heightened the need to monitor condition and prioritise treatments at suitable intervention points. • Mechanical impact (use damper, guardrails, stopper) • Chemical / atmospheric attack (use anti-corrosion, heat shields) • Humidity (use ventilation, insulation) • Atmosphere (external) (use fungicidal treatment, cladding) • Fire (use smoke detector) We have to protect against future maintenance costs
  71. 71. Cathodic Protection Composite Coating Rust scaling / Greasing BUILDING MAINTENANCE – C&S APPROACHSTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE
  72. 72. Infrastructure Maintenance
  73. 73. INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE INFRASTRUCTURE DETERIORATION PHENOMENA AND MAINTENANCE CONCEPT • Maintenance-free or self-sustaining infrastructure is highly desirable but not feasible • Infrastructures deteriorates with time due to; • wear and tear effect on the component, • users and occupiers activity, • inherent defects in design and construction • effects of environmental role hence left to themselves, facilities will eventually become inefficient
  74. 74. CRITICAL SUSTAINABILITY FACTORS IN ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE (i) Previous users action (Vandalism): Among the factors adduced as responsible for act of vandalism are wrong choice of materials, poor space layout, poor lighting arrangements and lack of security among others. Vandalism impairs the aesthetic of building, and reduces its life span and cost intensive. (ii) Environmental stress effects on infrastructure: Climatic conditions impact stress building and occupants. Acts base on orientation of the structure and on external elements of the structure. The resultant effect on the building is referred to as sick building syndrome. (iii) Deficiency in design construction and interdependency of building components: The nature in which some elements in building were designed often hinders their maintainability. The most effective maintenance strategy should be one that minimizes the incidence of maintenance works through appropriate design. To be able to sustain a design or concept, it should be maintainable, and maintainability in the real sense INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  75. 75. STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURE (a) Integrated approach in infrastructural design and construction (b) Process management (e) Re-engineering of the building and maintenance process (f) Improvement of environmental standard in construction and maintenance of engineering infrastructures (f) Introduction of new construction and maintenance concepts (g) Incorporating eco-friendly construction materials Coordination between Designers, Engineers, Suppliers engage other issues not only technical aspect, but as well social, legal, economic and political matter New technology will lead to better output should be a clear policy as regards standard obtainable in design, construction and maintenance of infrastructures in order to sustain life and structure, that uses the construction products and bye products new technology and design concepts, construction and maintenance of infrastructure INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  76. 76. THE RISK OF FLOODING Waterfront sites Coastal sites Ground drainage Roof drainage, services and building failures historic buildings still can be affected by flooding and it is useful to identify the causes and risk factors so that cost effective remedial measures can be taken structures were expected to be intermittently flooded, and those that have survived often include materials and design features that have allowed them to withstand intermittent flooding can be flooded due to breaching of sea defences or 'backing up' of floodwater by high tides. buildings suffer flooding due to defective or poorly managed ground drainage. On a local scale, this is commonly due to rising ground levels and defective street drainage, which may allow local surface water to 'run off' and drain into, rather than out of, ground floor or basement structures due to failures of roof drainage systems or other building services such as water mains INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  77. 77. Road / Highway Structural maintenance and resurfacing restores the fabric and the structural life of the highway thereby protecting the asset. Increased traffic flows have resulted in greater wear and tear and heightened the need to monitor condition and prioritise treatments at suitable intervention points. Structural Maintenance and Planned Surfacing Works Road / Highway Maintenance Carriageway Repairs Road Marking Signs Lighting Street Furniture Road Cleansing Fencing Traffic Calming 24 Hour Call Out Service. INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  78. 78. Sewerage Backing up and overflow of foul water and sewage systems are a not uncommon consequence of flooding. The decontamination works required then have a significant effect on the cost of refurbishment and the length of time to re-occupancy. The installation of additional breather vents and manholes may reduce this risk, and detailing of access and drainage to under-floor spaces or cellars can reduce the cost of decontamination. It is also important to cheek that the system conforms to all building regulations, British standards and bylaws. INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  79. 79. Marine Structural Maintenance For many owners of waterfront facilities, the marine structure is the essential component of their operation, without which their business operation could not continue. To ensure continued operation, maintenance inspections should be conducted at frequent, planned intervals. INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  80. 80. RISK MANAGEMENT • Identify risk factors by enquiry and site investigation • Risks reduced by repairing or re-detailing (re-designing). • Handle matters out of the direct control of building owners. i.e. Authority • In all cases, it is the responsibility of building owners to adequately maintain their property • Take all reasonable measures to mitigate losses, thus reduce risks. i.e. refurbishment measures RISK MANAGEMENT
  81. 81. Summary
  82. 82. Critical Factors When Designing A Building SUMMARY 1. Develop design for “ease of maintenance” concept at management level 2. Form a policy which include design for “ease of maintenance” objective, commitment from management, funding from project owners and close linkage to construction implementation 3. Identify current maintenance practices and opportunities for future improvement. Benchmarking against industry standard will provide reference points 4. Develop procedures which provide framework and assure consistent implementation of design for “ease of maintenance” activities 5. Form design for “ease of maintenance” implementation committee to develop the design process and implement it on projects 6. Define maintenance strategy based on current maintenance practices be it corrective, planned, predictive or proactive maintenance 7. Conduct design for “ease of maintenance” meetings and discussions according to schedule, to address specific issues in more detail 8. Checklists and reviews ensure that the project design team addresses the design for “ease of maintenance” objectives
  83. 83. Prevention against structural failures Most of the building / structural failures (other than those caused by natural disasters) have occurred due to such faults, which are controllable. 1. Good operational planning and detailed deliberations can save the failures of the valuable building / structures. 2. Well-designed structures, coupled with the hard effort of the experts 3. correct materials can ensure the structure a complete success. • Professionalism • Increased antagonism during construction bidding • Statutory bodies should be more proactive in imposing strict regulations • Integrated efforts by all parties Important points of failure prevention are: SUMMARY
  84. 84. SUMMARY
  85. 85. When rehabilitation is the best solution to restore a building / structure to its original character, it is pertinent to appoint the experience, reliable, sophisticated, progressive contractor to assure the desired results. refuses temporary, "band-aid" approaches to resolving a rehabilitation dilemma. It's not worth the client's budget and valuable time; and it's not worth risking the impeccable reputation recommends the best, proper solution based on not only careful research and analysis, but also on extensive experience Rehabilitation SUMMARY
  86. 86. Maintenance Policy Apply preventive maintenance as much as possible The Maintenance Managers shall identify any part of the building or facility for structural maintenance treatment using a system of regular inspections or other methods. The Maintenance Managers shall prioritise any part of the building or facility in need of structural and planned maintenance works accordingly. Correct contractors for correct works, correct time and correct budget. SUMMARY
  87. 87. Vision Planning Design Construction Maintenance planning Maintenance factors Poor Maintenance Ease of Maintenance Corrective Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Replace Repair Regular Service Maintenance Policy Condemn Demolish & Reconstruct Professional Liability Poor Planning Poor Design Poor Construction High Costs Low Costs Supervision & Specs INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
  88. 88. The Law of Malaysia Act 663 Purchaser to pay maintenance charges 23. (1) The purchaser shall pay the charges for the maintenance and management of the common property. INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
  89. 89. The Law of Malaysia Act 663 Developer not to be relieved of his obligations to carry out repairs, etc. 29. The appointment of a managing agent shall not relieve the developer of his obligation— (a) towards the purchasers in his development area to carry out repairs to the common property, to make good any defect, shrinkage or other faults in the common property during the defects liability period; and (b) to carry out repairs and varied and additional works to ensure that the development is constructed in accordance with the specifications and drawings approved by the competent authority INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
  90. 90. PART VII Developer to pay deposit to rectify defects on common property 31. (1) The developer of a building shall deposit in cash or bank guarantee with the Commissioner such sum as may be prescribed by the State Authority for the purpose of carrying out any work to rectify any defects in the common property of the development area after its completion. The Law of Malaysia Act 663 INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
  91. 91. Thank You Terima Kasih
  92. 92. Questions & Answers Email: