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BUILDING MAINTENANCE
Civil & Structural Engineers Approach
Ir. Abdul Aziz Abas
MIEM, P.Eng., MIEAust, C.PEng, APEC Eng, Int. PE (MY)
PREFACE
Preparation for life…
• As a module of the Semester 7 of engineering course for the Bachelor of Civil
Engineering programme, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Shah Alam
This “Engineers in Society” programme will provide basic overview of all aspects
of Building Maintenance from Civil Engineer’s prospective & approach
This programme is designed to enhance knowledge and skills required in addition
to basic civil engineering knowledge. It equips the prospective graduates with
appropriate skills in building maintenance and management.
Contents
Overview of Civil engineering and facts
Engineers Responsibility
Definition of Building Maintenance, Objectives & Gain
Building Maintenance Planning
Maintenance Factor & Defects
Structural & Infrastructural Maintenance
Summary
Introduction
Brief discussion on Importance of Maintenance Planning
Engineer’s Responsibility, Approach & Methodology for infra & servicesMaintenance Factor during Design Stage
Summary of discussion and Q & A
Role of Engineers
PREFACE
Defects due to Design, Construction and Materials Failures
Brief discussion on Structural & Infrastructural Maintenance
Brief discussion on Building Defects And Effect on Maintenance
Introduction
Overview
INTRODUCTION
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with
the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally
built environment.
FACTS
• Engineer deals with facts and figures
• Engineer converts ideas into reality
• Engineer’s responsibility & liability is for life (has no expiry date
except death)
• Engineer faces huge challenges to defend his works as
“anybody” has capability to query
• Engineer deals with safety of properties and lives
A. SPECIALIST ENGINEERS
• Geotechnical Engineer
• Earthworks Engineer
• Roads Engineer
• Drainage Engineer
• Water Supply Engineer
• Sewerage Engineer
• Marine / Port Engineer
• Structural Engineer
• Specialist
Knowledgeable in less subjects but an expert
Of specific subject(s)
Knowledgeable in many subjects but not
an expert Of any subject
CIVIL ENGINEERS
But, Managers / Decision Makers
come under this category
INTRODUCTION
Overview
B. GENERAL ENGINEERS
• Planning Engineer
• Site Engineer
• Maintenance Engineer
• Administrative Engineer
Overview
INTRODUCTION
“Engineers in society” plays roles which on first impression are not
linked to their professional training. The training received as an engineer
is part of the reasons which an engineer can display his versatility.
FACTS
• Engineers as Managers
• Engineer as Lawyers, Salesmen, entrepreneurs, etc
• Engineers as Scientists
• Engineers as Experts
• Engineers as Academics
• Engineers as Politicians
Overview
INTRODUCTION
Engineers owe responsibility to
• the general public: safety, environment
• direct consumers of the project
• fellow engineers
• clients e.g. government, industry
Overview
INTRODUCTION
Engineers owe duty
• to themselves
• which are inherent in their works and
institution to which they belong
• legal requirements: professional negligence
• contractual duties
• “the greater God”
Overview
CHINTRODUCTION
Engineers must have exposure to other
fields of knowledge and skills in order to be able to
properly discharge his functions:
• communication and presentation skills: oral and written
• economics and finance
• law
• presentation of self!
Overview
INTRODUCTION
Paradigm shift: engineers should not merely
respond to need: they should create or anticipate the needs
and be leaders of society. Foresights for “unfulfilled needs”.
Building Maintenance
Building maintenance is the combination of technical
and administrative actions to ensure the items and elements of a
building in an acceptable standard to perform its required function.
BUILDING MAINTENANCE
Definition
INTRODUCTION
8 Classification
Condition-based Maintenance
is maintenance when need arises
BUILDING MAINTENANCE
Value driven maintenance
is a maintenance management methodology
Corrective maintenance
is required when an item has failed or worn out
Planned maintenance
is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent
agent
Predictive maintenance
prediction when maintenance should be performed
Preventive maintenance
performed specifically to prevent faults from occurring
Proactive maintenance
is a maintenance strategy for stabilizing the reliability of
equipment
Reliability centered maintenance
is a process to ensure that assets continue to do what
their users require
Objectives
INTRODUCTION
 To satisfy Lender / Insurer requirement, to provide a safe, secure and
efficient working & living environment and to avoid deterioration of
physical assets
 To maximize the aesthetic and economic values of a building as
well as increase the health and safety of the occupants
 To extend the useful life of the buildings and prevent premature
capital outlay for replacement
BUILDING MAINTENANCE
Gain
INTRODUCTION
The benefits can be short term or long term and can be reflected in the areas of
physical, financial or human resources.
A. Maintenance will preserve the physical characteristics of a building and its
services.
• fewer breakdowns and lower future maintenance costs,
• higher productivity,
• less wastage of materials and improve organization sales revenue.
B. The improved condition of the
building gives positive effect to
the users resulting in lower
staff turnover, better customer
relation and public image.
BUILDING MAINTENANCE
Maintenance Planning
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
 minor problem which can grow into a major one through neglect, and which can
be multiplied in many buildings
 All new buildings , as a matter of course,
should be provided with a maintenance
manual
 many buildings are destroyed not by outside forces such as weathering factors
like heavy rains or drought but by insufficient/improper design during the
design stage, through bad housekeeping, inadequate maintenance and
neglect during its full operation.
Maintenance Planning
 Maintenance planning should start at the design stage of any building project
and should continue throughout the life of that building
Poor maintenance has resulted in damage and deterioration to this building
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
the deterioration of buildings due to the
lack of maintenance could lead to future
financial burdens, pose legal and other
industrial relations issues and affect the
delivery of services
It was important that buildings continue to be
properly maintained to ensure that they can function as
efficiently and effectively as possible
Identifying building problems and understanding of
building materials and its mechanical and electrical
systems are aspects of the process of preserving and
conserving building quality and to ensure the
efficiencies of the facilities
Is building maintenance important? …… why?
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Building maintenance can also be categorised according to who carries
out the maintenance work:
housekeeping maintenance
carried out by property managers; or
second line maintenance
carried out by specialist building trades people.
Category
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Serious defects in existing dwellings in 2000, United Kingdom
Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE)
C&S
Engineering Design
Related
M&E
Engineering
Design
Related
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Occurrence of defect by element in mainly non-
residential properties, 1997
Source : Building Research Establishment (BRE) for the Construction Quality Forum
C&S
Engineering Design
Related
C&S and M&E
Engineering
Design
Related
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Faults in new-build housing
Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE)
C&S
Engineering Design
Related
C&S and M&E
Engineering
Design
Related
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Crack &
Settlement
50%
Defective
damp-proof
33%
Durability
of masonry
17%
Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE)
Require
Geotechnical
Engineers input
Substructure
• most foundation difficulties arise from weak and
compressible soils and exceptionally heavy loads
• Trouble may be caused by either the imposed load
or independent movement of the ground
• Approximately 50% housing substructure faults
relate to cracking and settlement, 33% to defective
damp-proof courses and 17% to durability of
masonry below damp-proof courses.
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Distribution of defects by building type
Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE)
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
When buildings are neglected, defects can occur which may result
in extensive and avoidable damage to the building fabric or equipment.
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Why have a maintenance plan?
The main reason for a maintenance plan is that it is the most
cost-effective way to maintain the value of an asset. The
advantages of a plan are:
• the property is organised and maintained in a
systematic rather than ad-hoc way;
• building services can be monitored to assist their
efficient use;
• the standard and presentation of the property can
be maintained;
• subjective decision making and emergency
corrective maintenance are minimised.
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Probability
of failure
prevention
Frequency0
1
Probability of failure prevention
Reduce frequency
Reduce
reliability
“Danger” zone
Impact of Preventive Maintenance Frequency on Reliability
Source : Oniqua Enterprise Analytics
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Diagram from Preventive Maintenance of Buildings, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991.
Preventive maintenance costs markedly less than repairing
extensive damage or building failures
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Periodic inspection survey
• All properties should be inspected at regular intervals to identify any
deterioration and required maintenance work, including cleaning
• maintenance was inappropriate or if there are design or material defects
• All records should maintained for reference
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
• Advantageous to record the long-term
performance of repair materials and
procedures in order to assess their
suitability for future maintenance work
Maintenance review
The effectiveness of the maintenance work shall be reviewed regularly. An important
part of the maintenance planning for a building is to improve the previous decisions
to maintain the asset so that subsequent maintenance expenditure will be more
effective
Issues to consider when reviewing the work include:
• was it necessary or appropriate
• the timing and standard
• time frame of the planned
maintenance work
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Preparing a budget
Annual budgeted expenditure on maintenance can be of three
kinds:
committed expenditure, which includes tasks that occur every
year as part of planned maintenance, such as maintenance
contracts;
variable expenditure, which includes regular tasks within an
overall program of planned maintenance that may not occur
every year. The building manager exercises some discretion
and decides on priorities for these tasks;
managed expenditure, which relates to unplanned
maintenance works carried out entirely at the building
manager’s discretion
The aim of a maintenance budget is to reduce managed expenditure
over time as far as possible and replace it with variable expenditure.
Regular inspections can help by identifying how components are
performing and when they might fail.
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Preparing a budget
Months
Expenditure(RM)
committed expenditure
variable expenditure
managed expenditure
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Preparing a program
At least two levels of programming are required:
 long term maintenance
 annual maintenance
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
annual inspection survey, day log book or diary and work carried
over from the previous year. The daily response system for carrying
out urgent maintenance should be upgraded annually.
cycle, which can extend to 50 – 100 years of a building life
This implies setting priorities for different works. Some of the
factors affecting priorities are:
Priority
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
• occupational health and safety
• security of premises
• statutory requirements
• vandalism
• increased operating costs
• loss of revenue
• disruption to business operations
• likely failure of critical building fabric
• policy decisions.
MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Maintenance Factor
Design Stage
BMAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
 most designers claimed to have knowledge and experience on building
maintenance aspects but only few are aware of the importance to consider
maintenance factors during design stage
 main problems that the maintenance firms are currently facing are caused
by building design deficiencies, poor construction quality and poor
performance of building which is directly related to functional layout,
choice of building material and choice of building equipment
 Lack of communication between designer firms and maintenance firms as
well as building users or owners resulted in designer firms not fully aware
of the maintenance-related problems frequently reported by building
owners
 neglecting the benefits of designing for ease of maintenance that can
prolong the building lifespan, reduce defects rate and therefore reduce
maintenance costs.
Common Faults by Engineers
 to develop awareness and policy from the very early start of project to
ensure the concept for ease of maintenance can be understood and
implemented successfully
MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
importance to consider maintenance of building aspects during design
stage for the future performance of the building
Concept of design for ease of
maintenance
MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
Critical factors for designers to take into
account during design stage
• A design shall be executed perfectly well within the Code of Practice
• to practice total building performance audit, benchmarking and quality
management procedures in guiding developments towards improved
maintainability
• Adopt Ease of maintenance concept
• To reduce the number of design defects, thus amount of maintenance
expenditure can be reduced
• Consultation with users, Property / maintenance managers /
maintenance consultants in design stage
• Consultation with the system manufacturer to provide information
relevant to the education and training required for the proper operation
and maintenance of the systems being considered
MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
o The design life of a structure is that period for which it is designed to
fulfill its intended function when inspected and maintained based on
agreed procedures
o A design life for a structure or component does
necessarily mean that the structure will no longer
be fit for its purpose at the end of that period
o Necessary continue to be serviceable with
adequate and regular inspection and routine
maintenance
Design Life and Serviceability
Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Turkey
MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
Serviceability of Civil Engineering and Building Works
• Exposed structures must be attractive appearance and carefully designed and
detailed to ensure long term durability
• Structural elements or components not accessible, shall be designed to be
maintenance free through intended design lives
• Dense, durable high strength concrete must be used in structural elements
constructed of concrete
• Area of severe exposure, secondary cementitious materials e.g. pulverized fuel
ash shall be used if feasible and if it assists to achieve required durability
• Reinforced Concrete not exposed to rainwater or
ground water must have a minimum characteristic
concrete strength of 30 kN/mm^2
• Paint systems for steelwork shall ensure a minimum
life of 10 years before full maintenance painting is
required
• Corrosion protection of non-structural steel items
shall be appropriate to the accessibility of the item
for inspection and maintenance
MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
Durability And Maintenance
The design shall ensure, by means of the appropriate choice of structural forms,
details and materials, that the structure and building shall remain in a
serviceable condition over its life
a) Only materials and details having a proven record of durability in similar
conditions shall be used
b) Access shall be provided for inspection and maintenance to all elements of
the structure
c) Maintenance requirements shall be minimised by appropriate detailing and the
selection of suitable materials
d) Structures and Buildings shall be detailed so as to shed surface water in such a
way that ponding and streaking do not occur and
details which encourage the accumulation of debris
shall be avoided
e) Details shall be designed for ease of maintenance
MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
Access for Inspection And Maintenance
The design shall incorporate suitable access provisions for the inspection and
maintenance of all structures and equipment
Essential components to ensure efficient operation of the
building through its entire life cycle
Input to designers by maintenance firms
Source: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2006, Thesis of Construction Management
MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
Criteria used by designers in specifying materials for buildings
Source: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2006, Thesis of Construction Management
MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
Building Maintenance Problems
Associated with Building Defects
Understanding the common cause of building defects
and learn to develop a framework for the management
of maintenance required to provide a consistent
approach to the planning, management and reporting
of building maintenance
• Defects Due to Design Failures
• Defects Due to Construction Failures
MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
• Defects Due to Material Failures
Defects Due to
Design Failures
Defects within new buildings are areas of non-compliance
with the Building Code of Practice, Prevailing Design Codes and
published acceptable tolerances and standards. Older buildings, or
buildings out of warranty period, may not comply with these
standards but must be judged against the standard at the time of
construction or refurbishment
DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
Historical / Older buildings, or buildings out of warranty period, may
not comply with these standards but must be judged against the
standard at the time of construction or refurbishment
• Settlements
• cracked
• damaged or deteriorated brick walls
• Leaking showers
• dampness to a building
• excessive sagging to a roof or ceiling
• Drainage blockage / backflow
• Sewerage blockage / backflow
Clients incur
huge maintenance
& repair costs due
to professional
negligence
If a building collapses due to structural
failures, who is responsible?
Civil or Structural Engineer is the primarily responsible for it.
But then we need to investigate the construction quality if it is
constructed as per design and specifications?
Professionals are liable and
“most likely” to shoulder
repair costs due to professional
negligence
DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
Causes of errors in constructed facilities
Design stage
Construction stage
1. Fundamental errors in concept
2. Site selection and site development errors
3. Programming deficiencies
4. Design errors
5. Construction errors
6. Material deficiencies
7. Operational errors
Service stage
DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
1. Fundamental errors in concept
The project may have been located in an
unusual environment where the
prediction of environmental effects was
unreliable
DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
2. Site selection and site development
errors
Certain sites are more vulnerable than others to failure.
Recognition of the characteristics of particular site conditions
through appropriate geotechnical studies can lead to decisions
about site selection and site development that reduce the risk
of failure
DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
3. Programming deficiencies
The project does not perform as expected
DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
4. Design errors
• Errors in design concept
• Lack of structural redundancy
• Failure to consider a load or a combination of loads
• Deficient connection details
• Calculation errors
• Misuse of computer softwares
• Detailing problems, including selection of incompatible
materials or assemblies that are not constructable
• Failure to consider maintenance requirement or
durability
• Inadequate or inconsistent specifications for materials
or expected quality of work
• Unclear communication of design intent
Fatal errors
DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
Defects Due to
Construction Failures
Structural Failure is when the basic support system
of a form has lost integrity resulting in the inability
of the form to perform its original function.
DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
Inability to construct a building structure in
accordance to drawings & specifications, prevailing
Standards and sound engineering practice.
Leads to unnecessary building maintenance,
Technical & Financial burdens….. Or worst still,
Lost of investment & profits / debts
What is Construction Failure?
What is Stractural Failure?
What cause structural failures on
bridges?
Either a design flaw or lack of proper maintenance.
• Design errors
• Construction errors
• Excessive scour under pier
• Continued flooding
• Materials defects
• Lack of maintenance
• Overloads
• Impact Accidents
• Landslides / poor soil
• Disputed
DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
Bridge Location Country Date
Construction
type, use of
bridge
Reason
Number
death/injuries
Damage Comments
ughton
Suspension
Bridge
Broughton,
Greater
Manchester
England
01831-04-12 12
April 1831
Suspension
bridge over River
Irwell
Bolt snapped
due to
mechanical
resonance
caused by
marching
soldiers
20 injured
Collapsed at
one end, bridge
quickly rebuilt
and
strengthened
The rebuilt
Broughton
Suspension
Bridge in 1883
Collapse due to
faulty design.
Caused "break
step" rule to be
issued to UK
military.
Springbrook
bridge
Between
Mishawaka and
South Bend,
Indiana
United States
01859-06-27 27
June 1859
Railroad
embankment
bridge
Washout
41 (some accounts of
60 to 70)
Known as the
Great Mishawaka
Train Wreck or
South Bend Train
Wreck
Wootton bridge
collapse
Wootton England
01860-06-11 11
June 1860
Cast iron rail
bridge
cast iron
beams cracked
and failed
2 killed
total damage to
floor
Wootton bridge
after the crash
flawed design
using unreliable
cast iron, failed
from a repair
Bull bridge
accident
Ambergate England
01860-09-26 26
September 1860
Cast iron rail
bridge
cast iron beam
cracked and
failed
0/0
total collapse of
bridge
Section of broken
girder
bridge collapsed
while freight train
was on it; engine
had passed
bridge; rear cars
had not yet gone
onto it; train
moving slowly
due to f
DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
Bridge Location Country Date Construction
type, use of
bridge
Reason Number
death/injuries
Damage Comments
Silver Bridge Point
Pleasant, WV
and Kanauga,
OH
United States 15 December
1967
Road bridge,
chain link
suspension
Material fault and
Corrosion
46/9 Bridge and 37
vehicles
destroyed
Hayakawa
wire bridge
Saito, Kyūshū Japan 1980 1980 Wire Bridge
(?)
Lack of inspection
and maintenance
for 10 years
previous
7 people killed,
injuring 15
people
Hyatt Regency
walkway
collapse
Kansas City United States 17 July 1981 suspended
bridge in
hotel interior
overload/weak
joint/construction
error
114/200 walkway
destroyed
Schoharie
Creek Bridge
collapse
Thruway
Bridge
Fort Hunter,
New York
United States 5 April 1987 I-90 New York
Thruway over
the Schoharie
Creek
Improper
protection of
footings by
contractor lead to
scour of riverbed
under footings
10/? Total collapse
Highway 19
overpass at
Laval (De la
Concorde
Overpass
collapse)
Laval,
Quebec
Canada 30 September
2006
Highway
overpass
Shear failure due
to incorrectly
placed rebar, low-
quality concrete
5/6 20 meter
section
gaveway
Demolished;
was rebuilt,
reopened on
13 June
2007
DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
5. Construction errors
• Improper construction sequencing
• Inadequate temporary support
• Excessive construction load
• Premature removal of shoring or formwork
• Nonconformance to design intent
DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
6. Material deficiencies
Manufacturing or fabrication defects may
exist in the most reliable structural
materials
DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
7. Operational errors
A building, product or application can become defective through
age and lack of Maintenance
non-compliance with termite systems allow termites to access a
building and cause substantial damage including structural damage
to timbers
DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
7. Others
• Act of God (Fire / Flood / Strong wind /
Earthquake
• Deterioration
DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
Defects Due to
Material Failures
Stainless Steel Band Clamp Failure
This Stainless Steel Band Clamp failed because
the screw fitting was made from a lower grade
alloy SS than that of the band material. Lower
grades of SS can suffer accelerated corrosion
when placed underground
Welding - Typical defect due to less penetration
Due to the high degree of N alloying in both
the plate and the filler material there is a
potential risk of getting porosity in the weld
due to either too thick or too thin weld beads,
wrong joint preparation and also if the arc is
not properly protected.
DEFECTS DUE TO MATERIAL FAILURES
Galvanized Pipe Failure at Couplings
Plastic Pipe Manufacturing Defect Failure
Plastic Pipe manufacturing defects such as
this void at the pipe bell made this section
of water transmission pipeline fail
prematurely.
DEFECTS DUE TO MATERIAL FAILURES
prevent structural damage with a simple
waterproofing re-coat
Structural
Maintenance
BUILDING MAINTENANCE – C&S APPROACHSTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE
Structural maintenance restores the structural life of the building
thereby protecting the asset. The use of the building and exposure to
atmosphere increase wear and tear and heightened the need to monitor
condition and prioritise treatments at suitable intervention points.
• Mechanical impact (use damper, guardrails, stopper)
• Chemical / atmospheric attack (use anti-corrosion, heat shields)
• Humidity (use ventilation, insulation)
• Atmosphere (external) (use fungicidal treatment, cladding)
• Fire (use smoke detector)
We have to protect against future maintenance costs
Cathodic Protection
Composite
Coating
Rust scaling / Greasing
BUILDING MAINTENANCE – C&S APPROACHSTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE
Infrastructure
Maintenance
INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
INFRASTRUCTURE DETERIORATION PHENOMENA
AND MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
• Maintenance-free or self-sustaining infrastructure is highly
desirable but not feasible
• Infrastructures deteriorates with time due to;
• wear and tear effect on the component,
• users and occupiers activity,
• inherent defects in design and construction
• effects of environmental role
hence left to themselves,
facilities will eventually become inefficient
CRITICAL SUSTAINABILITY FACTORS IN ENGINEERING
INFRASTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE
(i) Previous users action (Vandalism):
Among the factors adduced as responsible for act of vandalism are wrong choice of
materials, poor space layout, poor lighting arrangements and lack of security
among others. Vandalism impairs the aesthetic of building, and reduces its life span
and cost intensive.
(ii) Environmental stress effects on infrastructure:
Climatic conditions impact stress building and occupants. Acts base on orientation
of the structure and on external elements of the structure. The resultant effect on
the building is referred to as sick building syndrome.
(iii) Deficiency in design construction and interdependency of building components:
The nature in which some elements in building were designed often
hinders their maintainability. The most effective maintenance strategy
should be one that minimizes the incidence of maintenance works through
appropriate design. To be able to sustain a design or concept, it should be
maintainable, and maintainability in the real sense
INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURE
(a) Integrated approach in infrastructural design and construction
(b) Process management
(e) Re-engineering of the building and maintenance process
(f) Improvement of environmental standard in construction and
maintenance of engineering infrastructures
(f) Introduction of new construction and maintenance concepts
(g) Incorporating eco-friendly construction materials
Coordination between Designers, Engineers, Suppliers
engage other issues not only technical aspect, but as well
social, legal, economic and political matter
New technology will lead to better output
should be a clear policy as regards standard obtainable in
design, construction and maintenance of infrastructures
in order to sustain life and structure, that uses the construction
products and bye products
new technology and design concepts, construction and
maintenance of infrastructure
INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
THE RISK OF FLOODING
Waterfront sites
Coastal sites
Ground drainage
Roof drainage, services and building failures
historic buildings still can be affected by flooding and it is useful to identify the
causes and risk factors so that cost effective remedial measures can be taken
structures were expected to be intermittently flooded, and those that
have survived often include materials and design features that have
allowed them to withstand intermittent flooding
can be flooded due to breaching of sea defences or 'backing up' of
floodwater by high tides.
buildings suffer flooding due to defective or poorly managed ground
drainage. On a local scale, this is commonly due to rising ground levels and
defective street drainage, which may allow local surface water to 'run off'
and drain into, rather than out of, ground floor or basement structures
due to failures of roof drainage systems or other building services
such as water mains
INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
Road / Highway
Structural maintenance and resurfacing restores the fabric
and the structural life of the highway thereby protecting the
asset. Increased traffic flows have resulted in greater wear
and tear and heightened the need to monitor condition and
prioritise treatments at suitable intervention points.
Structural Maintenance and Planned Surfacing Works
Road / Highway Maintenance
Carriageway Repairs
Road Marking
Signs
Lighting
Street Furniture
Road Cleansing
Fencing
Traffic Calming
24 Hour Call Out Service.
INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
Sewerage
Backing up and overflow of foul water and sewage systems are a not
uncommon consequence of flooding. The decontamination works required
then have a significant effect on the cost of refurbishment and the length of
time to re-occupancy.
The installation of additional breather vents and manholes may reduce this
risk, and detailing of access and drainage to under-floor spaces or cellars can
reduce the cost of decontamination. It is also important to cheek that the
system conforms to all building regulations, British standards and bylaws.
INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
Marine Structural Maintenance
For many owners of waterfront
facilities, the marine structure is the
essential component of their
operation, without which their
business operation could not
continue. To ensure continued
operation, maintenance inspections
should be conducted at frequent,
planned intervals.
INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
RISK MANAGEMENT
• Identify risk factors by enquiry and site investigation
• Risks reduced by repairing or re-detailing (re-designing).
• Handle matters out of the direct control of building owners. i.e. Authority
• In all cases, it is the responsibility of building owners to adequately maintain
their property
• Take all reasonable measures to mitigate losses, thus reduce risks. i.e.
refurbishment measures
RISK MANAGEMENT
Summary
Critical Factors When Designing A Building
SUMMARY
1. Develop design for “ease of maintenance” concept at management level
2. Form a policy which include design for “ease of maintenance” objective,
commitment from management, funding from project owners and
close linkage to construction implementation
3. Identify current maintenance practices and opportunities for future
improvement. Benchmarking against industry standard will provide
reference points
4. Develop procedures which provide framework and assure consistent
implementation of design for “ease of maintenance” activities
5. Form design for “ease of maintenance” implementation committee to
develop the design process and implement it on projects
6. Define maintenance strategy based on current maintenance practices
be it corrective, planned, predictive or proactive maintenance
7. Conduct design for “ease of maintenance” meetings and discussions
according to schedule, to address specific issues in more detail
8. Checklists and reviews ensure that the project design team addresses
the design for “ease of maintenance” objectives
Prevention against structural failures
Most of the building / structural failures (other than those caused by
natural disasters) have occurred due to such faults, which are controllable.
1. Good operational planning and detailed deliberations can save the
failures of the valuable building / structures.
2. Well-designed structures, coupled with the hard effort of the experts
3. correct materials can ensure the structure a complete success.
• Professionalism
• Increased antagonism during construction bidding
• Statutory bodies should be more proactive in imposing strict regulations
• Integrated efforts by all parties
Important points of failure prevention are:
SUMMARY
SUMMARY
When rehabilitation is the best solution to restore a building / structure to its
original character, it is pertinent to appoint the experience, reliable, sophisticated,
progressive contractor to assure the desired results.
refuses temporary, "band-aid" approaches to resolving a rehabilitation
dilemma. It's not worth the client's budget and valuable time; and it's not worth
risking the impeccable reputation
recommends the best, proper solution based
on not only careful research and analysis, but
also on extensive experience
Rehabilitation
SUMMARY
Maintenance Policy
Apply preventive maintenance as much as possible
The Maintenance Managers shall identify any part of the
building or facility for structural maintenance treatment
using a system of regular inspections or other methods.
The Maintenance Managers shall prioritise any part of the
building or facility in need of structural and planned
maintenance works accordingly.
Correct contractors for correct works,
correct time and correct budget.
SUMMARY
Vision
Planning
Design
Construction
Maintenance planning
Maintenance factors
Poor Maintenance Ease of Maintenance
Corrective Maintenance Preventive Maintenance
Replace Repair
Regular Service
Maintenance Policy
Condemn
Demolish &
Reconstruct
Professional
Liability
Poor Planning
Poor Design
Poor Construction
High Costs Low Costs
Supervision & Specs
INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
The Law of Malaysia Act 663
Purchaser to pay maintenance charges
23. (1) The purchaser shall pay the charges for the
maintenance and management of the common property.
INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
The Law of Malaysia Act 663
Developer not to be relieved of his obligations to carry out
repairs, etc.
29. The appointment of a managing agent shall not relieve the
developer of his obligation—
(a) towards the purchasers in his development area to carry
out repairs to the common property, to make good any
defect, shrinkage or other faults in the common property
during the defects liability period; and
(b) to carry out repairs and varied and additional works to
ensure that the development is constructed in accordance with the
specifications and drawings approved by the competent
authority
INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
PART VII
Developer to pay deposit to rectify defects on common property
31. (1) The developer of a building shall deposit in cash or bank
guarantee with the Commissioner such sum as may be prescribed
by the State Authority for the purpose of carrying out any work
to rectify any defects in the common property of the development
area after its completion.
The Law of Malaysia Act 663
INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
Thank You
Terima Kasih
Questions & Answers
Email: Ir.Aziz@yahoo.com

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Building maintenance

  • 1. BUILDING MAINTENANCE Civil & Structural Engineers Approach Ir. Abdul Aziz Abas MIEM, P.Eng., MIEAust, C.PEng, APEC Eng, Int. PE (MY)
  • 2. PREFACE Preparation for life… • As a module of the Semester 7 of engineering course for the Bachelor of Civil Engineering programme, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Shah Alam This “Engineers in Society” programme will provide basic overview of all aspects of Building Maintenance from Civil Engineer’s prospective & approach This programme is designed to enhance knowledge and skills required in addition to basic civil engineering knowledge. It equips the prospective graduates with appropriate skills in building maintenance and management.
  • 3. Contents Overview of Civil engineering and facts Engineers Responsibility Definition of Building Maintenance, Objectives & Gain Building Maintenance Planning Maintenance Factor & Defects Structural & Infrastructural Maintenance Summary Introduction Brief discussion on Importance of Maintenance Planning Engineer’s Responsibility, Approach & Methodology for infra & servicesMaintenance Factor during Design Stage Summary of discussion and Q & A Role of Engineers PREFACE Defects due to Design, Construction and Materials Failures Brief discussion on Structural & Infrastructural Maintenance Brief discussion on Building Defects And Effect on Maintenance
  • 5. Overview INTRODUCTION Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment. FACTS • Engineer deals with facts and figures • Engineer converts ideas into reality • Engineer’s responsibility & liability is for life (has no expiry date except death) • Engineer faces huge challenges to defend his works as “anybody” has capability to query • Engineer deals with safety of properties and lives
  • 6. A. SPECIALIST ENGINEERS • Geotechnical Engineer • Earthworks Engineer • Roads Engineer • Drainage Engineer • Water Supply Engineer • Sewerage Engineer • Marine / Port Engineer • Structural Engineer • Specialist Knowledgeable in less subjects but an expert Of specific subject(s) Knowledgeable in many subjects but not an expert Of any subject CIVIL ENGINEERS But, Managers / Decision Makers come under this category INTRODUCTION Overview B. GENERAL ENGINEERS • Planning Engineer • Site Engineer • Maintenance Engineer • Administrative Engineer
  • 7. Overview INTRODUCTION “Engineers in society” plays roles which on first impression are not linked to their professional training. The training received as an engineer is part of the reasons which an engineer can display his versatility. FACTS • Engineers as Managers • Engineer as Lawyers, Salesmen, entrepreneurs, etc • Engineers as Scientists • Engineers as Experts • Engineers as Academics • Engineers as Politicians
  • 8. Overview INTRODUCTION Engineers owe responsibility to • the general public: safety, environment • direct consumers of the project • fellow engineers • clients e.g. government, industry
  • 9. Overview INTRODUCTION Engineers owe duty • to themselves • which are inherent in their works and institution to which they belong • legal requirements: professional negligence • contractual duties • “the greater God”
  • 10. Overview CHINTRODUCTION Engineers must have exposure to other fields of knowledge and skills in order to be able to properly discharge his functions: • communication and presentation skills: oral and written • economics and finance • law • presentation of self!
  • 11. Overview INTRODUCTION Paradigm shift: engineers should not merely respond to need: they should create or anticipate the needs and be leaders of society. Foresights for “unfulfilled needs”.
  • 13. Building maintenance is the combination of technical and administrative actions to ensure the items and elements of a building in an acceptable standard to perform its required function. BUILDING MAINTENANCE Definition
  • 14. INTRODUCTION 8 Classification Condition-based Maintenance is maintenance when need arises BUILDING MAINTENANCE Value driven maintenance is a maintenance management methodology Corrective maintenance is required when an item has failed or worn out Planned maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent agent Predictive maintenance prediction when maintenance should be performed Preventive maintenance performed specifically to prevent faults from occurring Proactive maintenance is a maintenance strategy for stabilizing the reliability of equipment Reliability centered maintenance is a process to ensure that assets continue to do what their users require
  • 15. Objectives INTRODUCTION  To satisfy Lender / Insurer requirement, to provide a safe, secure and efficient working & living environment and to avoid deterioration of physical assets  To maximize the aesthetic and economic values of a building as well as increase the health and safety of the occupants  To extend the useful life of the buildings and prevent premature capital outlay for replacement BUILDING MAINTENANCE
  • 16. Gain INTRODUCTION The benefits can be short term or long term and can be reflected in the areas of physical, financial or human resources. A. Maintenance will preserve the physical characteristics of a building and its services. • fewer breakdowns and lower future maintenance costs, • higher productivity, • less wastage of materials and improve organization sales revenue. B. The improved condition of the building gives positive effect to the users resulting in lower staff turnover, better customer relation and public image. BUILDING MAINTENANCE
  • 18. MAINTENANCE PLANNING  minor problem which can grow into a major one through neglect, and which can be multiplied in many buildings  All new buildings , as a matter of course, should be provided with a maintenance manual  many buildings are destroyed not by outside forces such as weathering factors like heavy rains or drought but by insufficient/improper design during the design stage, through bad housekeeping, inadequate maintenance and neglect during its full operation. Maintenance Planning  Maintenance planning should start at the design stage of any building project and should continue throughout the life of that building
  • 19. Poor maintenance has resulted in damage and deterioration to this building MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 20. the deterioration of buildings due to the lack of maintenance could lead to future financial burdens, pose legal and other industrial relations issues and affect the delivery of services It was important that buildings continue to be properly maintained to ensure that they can function as efficiently and effectively as possible Identifying building problems and understanding of building materials and its mechanical and electrical systems are aspects of the process of preserving and conserving building quality and to ensure the efficiencies of the facilities Is building maintenance important? …… why? MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 21. Building maintenance can also be categorised according to who carries out the maintenance work: housekeeping maintenance carried out by property managers; or second line maintenance carried out by specialist building trades people. Category MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 22. Serious defects in existing dwellings in 2000, United Kingdom Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE) C&S Engineering Design Related M&E Engineering Design Related MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 23. Occurrence of defect by element in mainly non- residential properties, 1997 Source : Building Research Establishment (BRE) for the Construction Quality Forum C&S Engineering Design Related C&S and M&E Engineering Design Related MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 24. Faults in new-build housing Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE) C&S Engineering Design Related C&S and M&E Engineering Design Related MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 25. Crack & Settlement 50% Defective damp-proof 33% Durability of masonry 17% Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE) Require Geotechnical Engineers input Substructure • most foundation difficulties arise from weak and compressible soils and exceptionally heavy loads • Trouble may be caused by either the imposed load or independent movement of the ground • Approximately 50% housing substructure faults relate to cracking and settlement, 33% to defective damp-proof courses and 17% to durability of masonry below damp-proof courses. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 26. Distribution of defects by building type Source: Building Research Establishment (BRE) MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 27. When buildings are neglected, defects can occur which may result in extensive and avoidable damage to the building fabric or equipment. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 28. Why have a maintenance plan? The main reason for a maintenance plan is that it is the most cost-effective way to maintain the value of an asset. The advantages of a plan are: • the property is organised and maintained in a systematic rather than ad-hoc way; • building services can be monitored to assist their efficient use; • the standard and presentation of the property can be maintained; • subjective decision making and emergency corrective maintenance are minimised. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 29. Probability of failure prevention Frequency0 1 Probability of failure prevention Reduce frequency Reduce reliability “Danger” zone Impact of Preventive Maintenance Frequency on Reliability Source : Oniqua Enterprise Analytics MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 30. Diagram from Preventive Maintenance of Buildings, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991. Preventive maintenance costs markedly less than repairing extensive damage or building failures MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 31. Periodic inspection survey • All properties should be inspected at regular intervals to identify any deterioration and required maintenance work, including cleaning • maintenance was inappropriate or if there are design or material defects • All records should maintained for reference MAINTENANCE PLANNING • Advantageous to record the long-term performance of repair materials and procedures in order to assess their suitability for future maintenance work
  • 32. Maintenance review The effectiveness of the maintenance work shall be reviewed regularly. An important part of the maintenance planning for a building is to improve the previous decisions to maintain the asset so that subsequent maintenance expenditure will be more effective Issues to consider when reviewing the work include: • was it necessary or appropriate • the timing and standard • time frame of the planned maintenance work MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 33. Preparing a budget Annual budgeted expenditure on maintenance can be of three kinds: committed expenditure, which includes tasks that occur every year as part of planned maintenance, such as maintenance contracts; variable expenditure, which includes regular tasks within an overall program of planned maintenance that may not occur every year. The building manager exercises some discretion and decides on priorities for these tasks; managed expenditure, which relates to unplanned maintenance works carried out entirely at the building manager’s discretion The aim of a maintenance budget is to reduce managed expenditure over time as far as possible and replace it with variable expenditure. Regular inspections can help by identifying how components are performing and when they might fail. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 34. Preparing a budget Months Expenditure(RM) committed expenditure variable expenditure managed expenditure MAINTENANCE PLANNING
  • 35. Preparing a program At least two levels of programming are required:  long term maintenance  annual maintenance MAINTENANCE PLANNING annual inspection survey, day log book or diary and work carried over from the previous year. The daily response system for carrying out urgent maintenance should be upgraded annually. cycle, which can extend to 50 – 100 years of a building life
  • 36. This implies setting priorities for different works. Some of the factors affecting priorities are: Priority MAINTENANCE PLANNING • occupational health and safety • security of premises • statutory requirements • vandalism • increased operating costs • loss of revenue • disruption to business operations • likely failure of critical building fabric • policy decisions.
  • 39. BMAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE  most designers claimed to have knowledge and experience on building maintenance aspects but only few are aware of the importance to consider maintenance factors during design stage  main problems that the maintenance firms are currently facing are caused by building design deficiencies, poor construction quality and poor performance of building which is directly related to functional layout, choice of building material and choice of building equipment  Lack of communication between designer firms and maintenance firms as well as building users or owners resulted in designer firms not fully aware of the maintenance-related problems frequently reported by building owners  neglecting the benefits of designing for ease of maintenance that can prolong the building lifespan, reduce defects rate and therefore reduce maintenance costs. Common Faults by Engineers  to develop awareness and policy from the very early start of project to ensure the concept for ease of maintenance can be understood and implemented successfully
  • 40. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE importance to consider maintenance of building aspects during design stage for the future performance of the building Concept of design for ease of maintenance
  • 41. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE Critical factors for designers to take into account during design stage • A design shall be executed perfectly well within the Code of Practice • to practice total building performance audit, benchmarking and quality management procedures in guiding developments towards improved maintainability • Adopt Ease of maintenance concept • To reduce the number of design defects, thus amount of maintenance expenditure can be reduced • Consultation with users, Property / maintenance managers / maintenance consultants in design stage • Consultation with the system manufacturer to provide information relevant to the education and training required for the proper operation and maintenance of the systems being considered
  • 42. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE o The design life of a structure is that period for which it is designed to fulfill its intended function when inspected and maintained based on agreed procedures o A design life for a structure or component does necessarily mean that the structure will no longer be fit for its purpose at the end of that period o Necessary continue to be serviceable with adequate and regular inspection and routine maintenance Design Life and Serviceability Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Turkey
  • 43. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE Serviceability of Civil Engineering and Building Works • Exposed structures must be attractive appearance and carefully designed and detailed to ensure long term durability • Structural elements or components not accessible, shall be designed to be maintenance free through intended design lives • Dense, durable high strength concrete must be used in structural elements constructed of concrete • Area of severe exposure, secondary cementitious materials e.g. pulverized fuel ash shall be used if feasible and if it assists to achieve required durability • Reinforced Concrete not exposed to rainwater or ground water must have a minimum characteristic concrete strength of 30 kN/mm^2 • Paint systems for steelwork shall ensure a minimum life of 10 years before full maintenance painting is required • Corrosion protection of non-structural steel items shall be appropriate to the accessibility of the item for inspection and maintenance
  • 44. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE Durability And Maintenance The design shall ensure, by means of the appropriate choice of structural forms, details and materials, that the structure and building shall remain in a serviceable condition over its life a) Only materials and details having a proven record of durability in similar conditions shall be used b) Access shall be provided for inspection and maintenance to all elements of the structure c) Maintenance requirements shall be minimised by appropriate detailing and the selection of suitable materials d) Structures and Buildings shall be detailed so as to shed surface water in such a way that ponding and streaking do not occur and details which encourage the accumulation of debris shall be avoided e) Details shall be designed for ease of maintenance
  • 45. MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE Access for Inspection And Maintenance The design shall incorporate suitable access provisions for the inspection and maintenance of all structures and equipment
  • 46. Essential components to ensure efficient operation of the building through its entire life cycle Input to designers by maintenance firms Source: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2006, Thesis of Construction Management MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
  • 47. Criteria used by designers in specifying materials for buildings Source: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2006, Thesis of Construction Management MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE
  • 48. Building Maintenance Problems Associated with Building Defects Understanding the common cause of building defects and learn to develop a framework for the management of maintenance required to provide a consistent approach to the planning, management and reporting of building maintenance • Defects Due to Design Failures • Defects Due to Construction Failures MAINTENANCE FACTOR DESIGN STAGE • Defects Due to Material Failures
  • 50. Defects within new buildings are areas of non-compliance with the Building Code of Practice, Prevailing Design Codes and published acceptable tolerances and standards. Older buildings, or buildings out of warranty period, may not comply with these standards but must be judged against the standard at the time of construction or refurbishment DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES Historical / Older buildings, or buildings out of warranty period, may not comply with these standards but must be judged against the standard at the time of construction or refurbishment • Settlements • cracked • damaged or deteriorated brick walls • Leaking showers • dampness to a building • excessive sagging to a roof or ceiling • Drainage blockage / backflow • Sewerage blockage / backflow Clients incur huge maintenance & repair costs due to professional negligence
  • 51. If a building collapses due to structural failures, who is responsible? Civil or Structural Engineer is the primarily responsible for it. But then we need to investigate the construction quality if it is constructed as per design and specifications? Professionals are liable and “most likely” to shoulder repair costs due to professional negligence DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  • 52. Causes of errors in constructed facilities Design stage Construction stage 1. Fundamental errors in concept 2. Site selection and site development errors 3. Programming deficiencies 4. Design errors 5. Construction errors 6. Material deficiencies 7. Operational errors Service stage DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  • 53. 1. Fundamental errors in concept The project may have been located in an unusual environment where the prediction of environmental effects was unreliable DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  • 54. 2. Site selection and site development errors Certain sites are more vulnerable than others to failure. Recognition of the characteristics of particular site conditions through appropriate geotechnical studies can lead to decisions about site selection and site development that reduce the risk of failure DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  • 55. 3. Programming deficiencies The project does not perform as expected DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  • 56. 4. Design errors • Errors in design concept • Lack of structural redundancy • Failure to consider a load or a combination of loads • Deficient connection details • Calculation errors • Misuse of computer softwares • Detailing problems, including selection of incompatible materials or assemblies that are not constructable • Failure to consider maintenance requirement or durability • Inadequate or inconsistent specifications for materials or expected quality of work • Unclear communication of design intent Fatal errors DEFECTS DUE TO DESIGN FAILURES
  • 58. Structural Failure is when the basic support system of a form has lost integrity resulting in the inability of the form to perform its original function. DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES Inability to construct a building structure in accordance to drawings & specifications, prevailing Standards and sound engineering practice. Leads to unnecessary building maintenance, Technical & Financial burdens….. Or worst still, Lost of investment & profits / debts What is Construction Failure? What is Stractural Failure?
  • 59. What cause structural failures on bridges? Either a design flaw or lack of proper maintenance. • Design errors • Construction errors • Excessive scour under pier • Continued flooding • Materials defects • Lack of maintenance • Overloads • Impact Accidents • Landslides / poor soil • Disputed DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  • 60. Bridge Location Country Date Construction type, use of bridge Reason Number death/injuries Damage Comments ughton Suspension Bridge Broughton, Greater Manchester England 01831-04-12 12 April 1831 Suspension bridge over River Irwell Bolt snapped due to mechanical resonance caused by marching soldiers 20 injured Collapsed at one end, bridge quickly rebuilt and strengthened The rebuilt Broughton Suspension Bridge in 1883 Collapse due to faulty design. Caused "break step" rule to be issued to UK military. Springbrook bridge Between Mishawaka and South Bend, Indiana United States 01859-06-27 27 June 1859 Railroad embankment bridge Washout 41 (some accounts of 60 to 70) Known as the Great Mishawaka Train Wreck or South Bend Train Wreck Wootton bridge collapse Wootton England 01860-06-11 11 June 1860 Cast iron rail bridge cast iron beams cracked and failed 2 killed total damage to floor Wootton bridge after the crash flawed design using unreliable cast iron, failed from a repair Bull bridge accident Ambergate England 01860-09-26 26 September 1860 Cast iron rail bridge cast iron beam cracked and failed 0/0 total collapse of bridge Section of broken girder bridge collapsed while freight train was on it; engine had passed bridge; rear cars had not yet gone onto it; train moving slowly due to f DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  • 61. Bridge Location Country Date Construction type, use of bridge Reason Number death/injuries Damage Comments Silver Bridge Point Pleasant, WV and Kanauga, OH United States 15 December 1967 Road bridge, chain link suspension Material fault and Corrosion 46/9 Bridge and 37 vehicles destroyed Hayakawa wire bridge Saito, Kyūshū Japan 1980 1980 Wire Bridge (?) Lack of inspection and maintenance for 10 years previous 7 people killed, injuring 15 people Hyatt Regency walkway collapse Kansas City United States 17 July 1981 suspended bridge in hotel interior overload/weak joint/construction error 114/200 walkway destroyed Schoharie Creek Bridge collapse Thruway Bridge Fort Hunter, New York United States 5 April 1987 I-90 New York Thruway over the Schoharie Creek Improper protection of footings by contractor lead to scour of riverbed under footings 10/? Total collapse Highway 19 overpass at Laval (De la Concorde Overpass collapse) Laval, Quebec Canada 30 September 2006 Highway overpass Shear failure due to incorrectly placed rebar, low- quality concrete 5/6 20 meter section gaveway Demolished; was rebuilt, reopened on 13 June 2007 DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  • 62. 5. Construction errors • Improper construction sequencing • Inadequate temporary support • Excessive construction load • Premature removal of shoring or formwork • Nonconformance to design intent DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  • 63. 6. Material deficiencies Manufacturing or fabrication defects may exist in the most reliable structural materials DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  • 64. 7. Operational errors A building, product or application can become defective through age and lack of Maintenance non-compliance with termite systems allow termites to access a building and cause substantial damage including structural damage to timbers DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  • 65. 7. Others • Act of God (Fire / Flood / Strong wind / Earthquake • Deterioration DEFECTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION FAILURES
  • 67. Stainless Steel Band Clamp Failure This Stainless Steel Band Clamp failed because the screw fitting was made from a lower grade alloy SS than that of the band material. Lower grades of SS can suffer accelerated corrosion when placed underground Welding - Typical defect due to less penetration Due to the high degree of N alloying in both the plate and the filler material there is a potential risk of getting porosity in the weld due to either too thick or too thin weld beads, wrong joint preparation and also if the arc is not properly protected. DEFECTS DUE TO MATERIAL FAILURES
  • 68. Galvanized Pipe Failure at Couplings Plastic Pipe Manufacturing Defect Failure Plastic Pipe manufacturing defects such as this void at the pipe bell made this section of water transmission pipeline fail prematurely. DEFECTS DUE TO MATERIAL FAILURES prevent structural damage with a simple waterproofing re-coat
  • 70. BUILDING MAINTENANCE – C&S APPROACHSTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE Structural maintenance restores the structural life of the building thereby protecting the asset. The use of the building and exposure to atmosphere increase wear and tear and heightened the need to monitor condition and prioritise treatments at suitable intervention points. • Mechanical impact (use damper, guardrails, stopper) • Chemical / atmospheric attack (use anti-corrosion, heat shields) • Humidity (use ventilation, insulation) • Atmosphere (external) (use fungicidal treatment, cladding) • Fire (use smoke detector) We have to protect against future maintenance costs
  • 71. Cathodic Protection Composite Coating Rust scaling / Greasing BUILDING MAINTENANCE – C&S APPROACHSTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE
  • 73. INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE INFRASTRUCTURE DETERIORATION PHENOMENA AND MAINTENANCE CONCEPT • Maintenance-free or self-sustaining infrastructure is highly desirable but not feasible • Infrastructures deteriorates with time due to; • wear and tear effect on the component, • users and occupiers activity, • inherent defects in design and construction • effects of environmental role hence left to themselves, facilities will eventually become inefficient
  • 74. CRITICAL SUSTAINABILITY FACTORS IN ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE (i) Previous users action (Vandalism): Among the factors adduced as responsible for act of vandalism are wrong choice of materials, poor space layout, poor lighting arrangements and lack of security among others. Vandalism impairs the aesthetic of building, and reduces its life span and cost intensive. (ii) Environmental stress effects on infrastructure: Climatic conditions impact stress building and occupants. Acts base on orientation of the structure and on external elements of the structure. The resultant effect on the building is referred to as sick building syndrome. (iii) Deficiency in design construction and interdependency of building components: The nature in which some elements in building were designed often hinders their maintainability. The most effective maintenance strategy should be one that minimizes the incidence of maintenance works through appropriate design. To be able to sustain a design or concept, it should be maintainable, and maintainability in the real sense INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  • 75. STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURE (a) Integrated approach in infrastructural design and construction (b) Process management (e) Re-engineering of the building and maintenance process (f) Improvement of environmental standard in construction and maintenance of engineering infrastructures (f) Introduction of new construction and maintenance concepts (g) Incorporating eco-friendly construction materials Coordination between Designers, Engineers, Suppliers engage other issues not only technical aspect, but as well social, legal, economic and political matter New technology will lead to better output should be a clear policy as regards standard obtainable in design, construction and maintenance of infrastructures in order to sustain life and structure, that uses the construction products and bye products new technology and design concepts, construction and maintenance of infrastructure INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  • 76. THE RISK OF FLOODING Waterfront sites Coastal sites Ground drainage Roof drainage, services and building failures historic buildings still can be affected by flooding and it is useful to identify the causes and risk factors so that cost effective remedial measures can be taken structures were expected to be intermittently flooded, and those that have survived often include materials and design features that have allowed them to withstand intermittent flooding can be flooded due to breaching of sea defences or 'backing up' of floodwater by high tides. buildings suffer flooding due to defective or poorly managed ground drainage. On a local scale, this is commonly due to rising ground levels and defective street drainage, which may allow local surface water to 'run off' and drain into, rather than out of, ground floor or basement structures due to failures of roof drainage systems or other building services such as water mains INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  • 77. Road / Highway Structural maintenance and resurfacing restores the fabric and the structural life of the highway thereby protecting the asset. Increased traffic flows have resulted in greater wear and tear and heightened the need to monitor condition and prioritise treatments at suitable intervention points. Structural Maintenance and Planned Surfacing Works Road / Highway Maintenance Carriageway Repairs Road Marking Signs Lighting Street Furniture Road Cleansing Fencing Traffic Calming 24 Hour Call Out Service. INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  • 78. Sewerage Backing up and overflow of foul water and sewage systems are a not uncommon consequence of flooding. The decontamination works required then have a significant effect on the cost of refurbishment and the length of time to re-occupancy. The installation of additional breather vents and manholes may reduce this risk, and detailing of access and drainage to under-floor spaces or cellars can reduce the cost of decontamination. It is also important to cheek that the system conforms to all building regulations, British standards and bylaws. INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  • 79. Marine Structural Maintenance For many owners of waterfront facilities, the marine structure is the essential component of their operation, without which their business operation could not continue. To ensure continued operation, maintenance inspections should be conducted at frequent, planned intervals. INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE
  • 80. RISK MANAGEMENT • Identify risk factors by enquiry and site investigation • Risks reduced by repairing or re-detailing (re-designing). • Handle matters out of the direct control of building owners. i.e. Authority • In all cases, it is the responsibility of building owners to adequately maintain their property • Take all reasonable measures to mitigate losses, thus reduce risks. i.e. refurbishment measures RISK MANAGEMENT
  • 82. Critical Factors When Designing A Building SUMMARY 1. Develop design for “ease of maintenance” concept at management level 2. Form a policy which include design for “ease of maintenance” objective, commitment from management, funding from project owners and close linkage to construction implementation 3. Identify current maintenance practices and opportunities for future improvement. Benchmarking against industry standard will provide reference points 4. Develop procedures which provide framework and assure consistent implementation of design for “ease of maintenance” activities 5. Form design for “ease of maintenance” implementation committee to develop the design process and implement it on projects 6. Define maintenance strategy based on current maintenance practices be it corrective, planned, predictive or proactive maintenance 7. Conduct design for “ease of maintenance” meetings and discussions according to schedule, to address specific issues in more detail 8. Checklists and reviews ensure that the project design team addresses the design for “ease of maintenance” objectives
  • 83. Prevention against structural failures Most of the building / structural failures (other than those caused by natural disasters) have occurred due to such faults, which are controllable. 1. Good operational planning and detailed deliberations can save the failures of the valuable building / structures. 2. Well-designed structures, coupled with the hard effort of the experts 3. correct materials can ensure the structure a complete success. • Professionalism • Increased antagonism during construction bidding • Statutory bodies should be more proactive in imposing strict regulations • Integrated efforts by all parties Important points of failure prevention are: SUMMARY
  • 85. When rehabilitation is the best solution to restore a building / structure to its original character, it is pertinent to appoint the experience, reliable, sophisticated, progressive contractor to assure the desired results. refuses temporary, "band-aid" approaches to resolving a rehabilitation dilemma. It's not worth the client's budget and valuable time; and it's not worth risking the impeccable reputation recommends the best, proper solution based on not only careful research and analysis, but also on extensive experience Rehabilitation SUMMARY
  • 86. Maintenance Policy Apply preventive maintenance as much as possible The Maintenance Managers shall identify any part of the building or facility for structural maintenance treatment using a system of regular inspections or other methods. The Maintenance Managers shall prioritise any part of the building or facility in need of structural and planned maintenance works accordingly. Correct contractors for correct works, correct time and correct budget. SUMMARY
  • 87. Vision Planning Design Construction Maintenance planning Maintenance factors Poor Maintenance Ease of Maintenance Corrective Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Replace Repair Regular Service Maintenance Policy Condemn Demolish & Reconstruct Professional Liability Poor Planning Poor Design Poor Construction High Costs Low Costs Supervision & Specs INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
  • 88. The Law of Malaysia Act 663 Purchaser to pay maintenance charges 23. (1) The purchaser shall pay the charges for the maintenance and management of the common property. INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
  • 89. The Law of Malaysia Act 663 Developer not to be relieved of his obligations to carry out repairs, etc. 29. The appointment of a managing agent shall not relieve the developer of his obligation— (a) towards the purchasers in his development area to carry out repairs to the common property, to make good any defect, shrinkage or other faults in the common property during the defects liability period; and (b) to carry out repairs and varied and additional works to ensure that the development is constructed in accordance with the specifications and drawings approved by the competent authority INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
  • 90. PART VII Developer to pay deposit to rectify defects on common property 31. (1) The developer of a building shall deposit in cash or bank guarantee with the Commissioner such sum as may be prescribed by the State Authority for the purpose of carrying out any work to rectify any defects in the common property of the development area after its completion. The Law of Malaysia Act 663 INTRODUCTIONSUMMARY
  • 92. Questions & Answers Email: Ir.Aziz@yahoo.com