Water Supply - Design Approach And Methodologies

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Water Supply - Design Approach And Methodologies

  1. 1. WATER SUPPLY Design Approach And Methodologies Ir. Abdul Aziz Abas P.Eng, C.PEng, Int.PE
  2. 2. PREFACE WATER SUPPLY Preparation for life… • As a module of the Integrated Design Project course for the Bachelor of Civil Engineering programme, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Shah Alam This program will provide basic overview of all aspects of Water Supply design approach and methodologies Mar 2010 2
  3. 3. PREFACE WATER SUPPLY Benefit • UNDERSTANDING the subject of Civil Engineering in wider perspective, inter-relation with other subjects influencing the performance of Engineering works and challenges. • ACQUIRRING cutting edge practical design knowledge & skills that last forever in the world of ever-changing infrastructural engineering. • DEVELOPING your engineering knowledge significantly and permanently. • PROVIDING your dashing factor (distinguish factor) for better chance of employment upon graduation. • EXPAND your employment versatility in an ever-changing marketplace. • WINNING at the office and in daily job with the power of practical skill. • ADVANCING your career as an Engineer. • GAINING LEVERAGE by demonstrating knowledge of engineering in a multi-disciplinary context. Mar 2010 3
  4. 4. CONTENTS WATER SUPPLY 1. Introduction 2. Hydrology 3. Design Guidelines 4. Water Supply Planning 5. Raw Water Intake 6. Water Treatment 7. Water Transmission 8. Water Distribution 9. Water Storage 10. Water Pumping 11. Water Reticulation 12. Typical Drawings Contents Mar 2010 4
  5. 5. 1 INTRODUCTION 5
  6. 6. 1 INTRODUCTION WATER SUPPLY Definition Water is a ubiquitous chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen and is vital for all known forms of life Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties in the water industry, commonly a public utility, of water resources of various qualities to different users Water Supply System is facilities for the collection, treatment, storage, and distribution of water Mar 2010 6
  7. 7. 1 INTRODUCTION WATER SUPPLY Overview of World Water Supply Source: UNDP. Data as of 2006 7 Mar 2010 7
  8. 8. 1 INTRODUCTION WATER SUPPLY Malaysian Water Authority MINISTRY OF FINANCE (MOF) KEMENTERIAN TENAGA, TEKNOLOGI HIJAU DAN AIR (KeTTHA) Ministry of Power, Green Technology And Water SURUHANJAYA PERKHIDMATAN AIR NEGARA (SPAN) Regulator National Water Services Commission WSIA 2006 PENGURUSAN ASET AIR BHD (PAAB) Water Asset Management Company (WAMCO) Facilities Licensee SPAN’s Representatives WATER SUPPLY SERVICES SEWERAGE SERVICES ALL STATES PERLIS KEDAH P.PINANG PERAK SELANGOR PAHANG IWK JKR SADA PBA LAP SYABAS JBA Service Licensee T’GANU N.SEMBILAN MELAKA JOHOR K’TAN SATU SAINS SAMB SAJ AK Design Guidelines SPAN as the technical and economic regulator and set out the function and powers of SPAN WSIA provides the legal framework required for the regulation of the water and sewerage service industry 8 PAAB Water asset owner 8 Mar 2010 8
  9. 9. 1 INTRODUCTION WATER SUPPLY Typical Water Supply System Mar 2010 9
  10. 10. 2 HYDROLOGY 10
  11. 11. 2 HYDROLOGY WATER SUPPLY Hydrological Cycle 11 Mar 2010 11
  12. 12. 1 HYDROLOGY WATER SUPPLY Suitable raw water source Non-Suitable raw water source (low contamination) (high contamination) Concept of Raw Water Source 12 Mar 2010 12
  13. 13. 1 HYDROLOGY WATER SUPPLY Raw Water Intake Impounding reservoir Water Shed (Catchment Area) 13 13 Mar 2010 13
  14. 14. 1 HYDROLOGY WATER SUPPLY Impounding Reservoir 14 14 Mar 2010 14
  15. 15. Mar 2010 3 Design Guidelines 15
  16. 16. 3 DESIGN GUIDELINES WATER SUPPLY Typical Water Demand Guidelines Water Demand Criteria Type of Water Demand Demand Criteria Housing 1.6 CuM/unit/day Hotel 1.5 CuM/room/day Commercial 6.0 CuM/Acre/day Industrial 20.2 CuM/Acre/day Ships Supply* 160 CuM/Ship Port Area (Incl. ships supply)* 6.0 CuM/Acre/day 16 16 Mar 2010 16
  17. 17. 3 DESIGN GUIDELINES WATER SUPPLY Water Quality Guidelines National Guidelines for Raw Drinking Water Quality Secondary Drinking Water Standards (Revised December 2000) Parameter Symbol Benchmark Contaminant Secondary Standard Sulphate SO4 250 mg/l Aluminum 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L Hardness CaCO3 500 mg/l Chloride 250 mg/L Nitrate NO3 10 mg/l Color 15 (color units) Must not be detected in any 100 ml Copper 1.0 mg/L Coliform - Corrosivity noncorrosive sample Manganese Mn 0.1 mg/l Fluoride 2.0 mg/L Chromium Cr 0.05 mg/l Foaming Agents 0.5 mg/L Iron 0.3 mg/L Zinc Zn 3 mg/l Manganese 0.05 mg/L Arsenic As 0.01 mg/l Odor 3 threshold odor number Selenium Se 0.01 mg/l pH 6.5-8.5 Chloride Cl 250 mg/l Silver 0.10 mg/L Phenolics - 0.002 mg/l Sulfate 250 mg/L TDS - 1000 mg/l Total Dissolved 500 mg/L Iron Fe 0.3 mg/l Oxygen Copper Cu 1.0 mg/l Zinc 5 mg/L Lead Pb 0.01 mg/l Source: EPA Standard Cadmium Cd 0.003 mg/l Mercury Hg 0.001 mg/l Source : Ministry of Health, Malaysia Note: US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines 17 17 Mar 2010 17
  18. 18. 3 DESIGN GUIDELINES WATER SUPPLY Typical Design Criteria • Water Distribution Max Pressure Zones ≤ 40 m (S’gor) Max Pressure Zones ≤ 60 m (JKR) • Transmission Pipeline Residual Pressure ≥ 1 bar Velocity ≤ 1.0 m/sec Max Test Pressure = 15 bars • Water Storage Minimum ; 1-day Maximum ; 3-day Suction Tank ; 1/3 x Demand Service Tank ; 2/3 x Demand • Pumping System Velocity ≤ 1.0 m/sec Max head ; Pump curves • Reticulation Pipelines Head loss ≤ 2m / km Velocity ≤ 0.6 m/sec Residual Pressure ≥ 7.5m above HSL Hydrants Pressure ≥ 1.0 bar • Minimum pressure in a 5 psi (0.35 bar) system 18 18 Mar 2010 18
  19. 19. 3 DESIGN GUIDELINES WATER SUPPLY Typical Water Supply System TREATMENT STAGE DISTRIBUTION STAGE CONSUMPTION STAGE Rp ≈ 3m Rp ≈ 3m Pressure Zone ≤ 40m Balancing Reservoir Max Pressure Zone = 40m Rp ≥10m Rp ≥7.5m Rp ≥10m Velocity ≤1m/s Break Tank P Service Rp ≥7.5m Suction Tank Tank Rp ≈ 3m Service area Rp ≥10m P Hydrants Treatment Work Velocity ≤2.5m/s TRANS. Velocity ≤1m/s PIPELINE Velocity ≤0.6m/s Velocity ≤0.6m/s PUMPING (Inter-resv) TRANSMISSION PIPELINE MAIN RETICULATION PIPES Intake 19 Mar 2010 19
  20. 20. Mar 2010 4 Water Supply Planning 21
  21. 21. 4 WATER SUPPLY PLANNING WATER SUPPLY Development Masterplan Mar 2010 22
  22. 22. 4 WATER SUPPLY PLANNING WATER SUPPLY Landuse Ultimate Water Demands Ultimate projected Demand year 2040 Mar 2010 23
  23. 23. 4 WATER SUPPLY PLANNING WATER SUPPLY Non Revenue Water High NRW rate @ 42%, Pahang State 37% - 70% Connection leak - 20% Pipe burst - 10% Others Average NRW Asian Countries = 30% Average (Developed Countries+ Asean) = 23% Target = 25% Mar 2010 24
  24. 24. 4 WATER SUPPLY PLANNING WATER SUPPLY Water Demands Projection 2008 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Landuse (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) Existing Kuantan Port Area 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 Proposed Extension Port Area** 0 109 380 930 1,555 2,180 3,230 4,280 Industry (Existing) 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 Industry (Proposed) 0 2,885 10,096 19,974 23,386 26,797 36,905 47,013 Very Heavy Industry (Iron Steel, 0 10,877 38,071 101,372 118,224 135,077 148,142 161,206 Bio-fuel, POIC, Petchem, Lynas) Tourism Zone 0 433 1,516 1,516 1,516 1,516 1,516 1,516 Commercial & Nursery 0 213 745 1,091 1,296 1,501 1,733 1,966 Residential 2,831 3,259 17,383 27,803 37,816 47,828 61,587 75,347 Mixed use 0 19 65 151 295 439 542 644 School & Institutional & Logistic 1,440 2,295 4,432 5,022 5,227 5,432 6,154 6,876 Park Golf course 0 0 0 0 0 25 50 Railway Station / Transit Oriented 0 0 0 0 69 138 138 138 Dev (TOD) NRW %# 42.00% 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 25.00% 25.00% 25.00% NRW (CuM/day) 24,738 29,887 44,561 63,746 61,003 68,885 78,650 88,415 TOTAL (CuM/day) 83,639 104,605 171,877 276,234 305,016 344,423 393,250 442,077 TOTAL (Million Gallons/day)# 19 24 39 61 67 76 87 98 Projected Water Demands Mar 2010 25
  25. 25. 4 WATER SUPPLY PLANNING WATER SUPPLY Water Demands Established Demand Ultimate projected Demand Projected Water Demands Mar 2010 26
  26. 26. 4 WATER SUPPLY PLANNING WATER SUPPLY Regional Context IMPOUNDING RESERVOIR PROJECT SITE Kuantan Topographical Map Mar 2010 27
  27. 27. 4 WATER SUPPLY PLANNING WATER SUPPLY Regional Context Cereh Dam PROJECT SITE 98 MGD Kuantan Terrain Map Mar 2010 28
  28. 28. 5 RAW WATER INTAKE
  29. 29. 5 RAW WATER ABSTRACTION WATER SUPPLY Cereh Dam Cereh Dam PROJECT SITE Sg. Kuantan Water Catchment Area 15km Sg. Kuantan Semambu Treatment Work 10km Kuantan Kg. Kobat Baru Water Intake Mar 2010 31
  30. 30. 5 RAW WATER ABSTRACTION WATER SUPPLY Raw Water Intake Intake structure Wier By-pass Q abstraction = Ultimate Demand + Plant Use Mar 2010 32
  31. 31. 5 RAW WATER ABSTRACTION WATER SUPPLY Raw Water Intake Intake structure Q abstraction Raw Water Transmission pipeline To WTP Intake station Headwork Bridge Platform Level = 100 years flood level Overflow gate Suction level Q abstraction = Ultimate Demand + Plant Use Mar 2010 33
  32. 32. 6 WATER TREATMENT
  33. 33. 6 WATER TREATMENT WATER SUPPLY Cereh Dam Cereh Dam PROJECT SITE Sg. Kuantan Water Catchment Area 15km Sg. Kuantan Semambu Treatment Work 10km Kuantan Kg. Kobat Baru Water Intake Mar 2010 35
  34. 34. 6 WATER TREATMENT WATER SUPPLY Typical Water Treatment System Aerator 36 Mar 2010 36
  35. 35. 6 WATER TREATMENT WATER SUPPLY Water Treatment Plant 1 3 Aerator 2 4 4 5 5 3 2 1 Mar 2010 37
  36. 36. 6 Supply of potable water WATER TREATMENT WATER SUPPLY Water Treatment Plant 1 3 Aerator 2 4 4 5 5 3 2 1 Incoming raw water Mar 2010 38
  37. 37. 7 WATER TRANSMISSION
  38. 38. 7 WATER TRANSMISSION WATER SUPPLY Gravity Flow PROJECT SITE Source point GL 60m GL 37m Ch.15000m Ground level Transmission pipeline 15km Supply point Transmission GL 37m Semambu GL 60m pipeline Treatment Work Ch.0m Kuantan Ch 0.00m Ch 15000.00m Longitudinal Profile Mar 2010 40
  39. 39. 7 WATER TRANSMISSION WATER SUPPLY • Ultimate Demand (Q) = 98.0CuM/day Gravity Flow • Peak factor f = 1.2 • Total pipe length (L) = 15km • Consider minor losses = 20% • Bottom Water Level @ TW (B) = 60.0m ODL Source point • Top Water Level @ Project Site (T) = 40.0m ODL GL 60m • Required Residual Pressure (Hr) = 10m • Design transmission period (t) = 20 hours / 24 hours Thus • Design Flow, Qd = Q * f / t • Permissible Head Loss, HL = (B –T + Hr) / (L * 1.2) Ground level • Roughness Coefficient, C = 100 Hence, Using Hazen-William Formula Supply point • HL = 10.6*Qd^1.85 GL 37m C^1.85*D^5.015 Transmission pipeline • Adopt Diameter of pipes, D = 1.8m dia • Recalculate Velocity, V = 0.64 m/sec Ch 0.00m Ch 15000.00m Longitudinal Profile Mar 2010 41
  40. 40. 7 WATER TRANSMISSION WATER SUPPLY Mar 2010 42
  41. 41. 7 WATER TRANSMISSION WATER SUPPLY Mar 2010 43
  42. 42. 8 WATER DISTRIBUTION
  43. 43. 8 WATER DISTRIBUTION WATER SUPPLY Water Supply Zones 6 Suit development phasing 5 Reliable distribution system Construction cost effective 3 Ease of maintenance 1 Control of NRW 2 4 Mar 2010 45
  44. 44. 8 WATER DISTRIBUTION WATER SUPPLY Hydraulics & Service Coverage Consideration Balancing Tank Residual Pressure Residual Pressure Residual Pressure Supply Zone 1 Supply Zone 2 Supply Zone 3 Service coverage Service coverage Service coverage Mar 2010 46
  45. 45. 8 WATER DISTRIBUTION WATER SUPPLY Centralised Service Tank & Pressure Analysis Mar 2010 47
  46. 46. 8 WATER DISTRIBUTION WATER SUPPLY To Cherating (future) Main Distribution Pipes Network R7 R5 5 Timur R4 R2 R9 R8 Balancing Tank R1 LEGEND R3 Distribution Pipes Network Storage Tank Transmission pipeline From Treatment To Kuala Lumpur Plant Mar 2010 48
  47. 47. 9 WATER STORAGE
  48. 48. 9 WATER STORAGE WATER SUPPLY Water Storage Demands (Without NRW) 2008 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Landuse (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) (CuM/day) Existing Kuantan Port Area 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 5,968 Proposed Extension Port Area** 0 109 380 930 1,555 2,180 3,230 4,280 Industry (Existing) 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 48,662 Industry (Proposed) 0 2,885 10,096 19,974 23,386 26,797 36,905 47,013 Very Heavy Industry (Iron Steel, 0 10,877 38,071 101,372 118,224 135,077 148,142 161,206 Bio-fuel, POIC, Petchem, Lynas) Tourism Zone 0 433 1,516 1,516 1,516 1,516 1,516 1,516 Commercial & Nursery 0 213 745 1,091 1,296 1,501 1,733 1,966 Residential 2,831 3,259 17,383 27,803 37,816 47,828 61,587 75,347 Mixed use 0 19 65 151 295 439 542 644 School & Institutional & Logistic 1,440 2,295 4,432 5,022 5,227 5,432 6,154 6,876 Park Golf course 0 0 0 0 0 25 50 Railway Station / Transit Oriented 0 0 0 0 69 138 138 138 Dev (TOD) NRW %# 42.00% 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 25.00% 25.00% 25.00% NRW (CuM/day) 24,738 29,887 44,561 63,746 61,003 68,885 78,650 88,415 TOTAL (CuM/day) 83,639 104,605 171,877 276,234 305,016 344,423 393,250 442,077 TOTAL (Million Gallons/day)# 19 24 39 61 67 76 87 98 Mar 2010 50
  49. 49. 9 WATER STORAGE WATER SUPPLY Water Storage Demands Ultimate Established projected Storage Storage Demand Demand Mar 2010 51
  50. 50. 9 WATER STORAGE WATER SUPPLY To Cherating (future) Distribution of Storage Tanks R1 + R2 + R3 + …………. + R9 = 1 Day Storage R7 R5 5 Timur Mandatory requirement R4 R2 R9 R8 R1 R3 LEGEND Proposed Storage Tank Balancing Tank From Treatment To Kuala Lumpur Plant Mar 2010 52
  51. 51. 9 WATER STORAGE WATER SUPPLY Mass-balance Analysis Aim To establish a balance flow system Q in = Q out Q Demand Vt Q in Volume in To determine Q out Volume out Qp Volume Pumping 1. Suction Tank Size 2. Elevated Tank Size 3. Transmission (incoming) flow period 4. Transmission pipeline size Vs P Qp Q out Q in Vs = 1/3*Q Vt = 2/3*Q Mar 2010 53
  52. 52. 9 WATER STORAGE WATER SUPPLY Typical Water Storage Structures Mar 2010 54
  53. 53. 9 WATER STORAGE WATER SUPPLY Typical Water Storage Application Mar 2010 55
  54. 54. 10 WATER PUMPING
  55. 55. 10 WATER PUMPING WATER SUPPLY Purpose Water have two main purposes: • Transfer of liquid from one place to another place • Circulate liquid around a system Mar 2010 57
  56. 56. 10 WATER PUMPING WATER SUPPLY Purpose Residual Pressure Residual Pressure Pressure booster Vacuum point Mar 2010 58
  57. 57. 9 WATER PUMPING WATER SUPPLY Water Pumping Analysis Positive Suction Head hsafety Arrangement hvd HT = Hd - Hs hfd HT Total Pumping Head hpd = Atm. pressure hv Vapour Head hf Friction Head hp Pressure Head h Static Head hsafety Safety Head Hd Total Discharge Hd Hs Total Suction hd Elevated Service Tank Suction Tank hvs Hs hps = Atm. Pres. Q out Q in hs hfs P Mar 2010 59
  58. 58. 9 WATER PUMPING WATER SUPPLY Water Pumping Analysis Negative Suction Head hsafety Arrangement hvd HT = Hd + Hs hfd HT Total Pumping Head hpd = Atm. pressure hv Vapour Head hf Friction Head hp Pressure Head h Static Head hsafety Safety Head Hd Total Discharge Hd Hs Total Suction hd Suction Tank Elevated Service Tank P hs Q out Q in Hs hvs hfs hps = Atm. Pressure Mar 2010 60
  59. 59. 10 WATER PUMPING WATER SUPPLY Water Pumping Analysis Pump Operating Point Mar 2010 61
  60. 60. 10 WATER PUMPING WATER SUPPLY Water Pumping Analysis HT Qp Typical Pump Curve & Selection of pump Mar 2010 63
  61. 61. 11 WATER RETICULATION
  62. 62. 11 WATER RETICULATION WATER SUPPLY Water Supply Zone 5 4 3 Draw off Node 5 Reticulation pipes Draw off In loop system R5 Service Tank Draw off 8 R5 2 6 1 7 9 12 10 Reticulation pipes In loop system 11 Mar 2010 66
  63. 63. 11 WATER RETICULATION WATER SUPPLY Zone 5 - Water Demand Calculation Zone 5 – Ultimate Demand (Year 2040) Mar 2010 67
  64. 64. 11 WATER RETICULATION WATER SUPPLY Critical Scenario Consideration Dominant Flow Case 1 (Fire Flow) : Average Flow + Fire Flow Case 2 (Peak Flow) : Average Flow x Peak Factor Consider Dominant Flow for water reticulation analysis Thus, Case 1 : (19,175.50 CuM/day x 1000/24/3600 ) + 2 (22.5 lit/sec) = 267 lit/sec Case 2 : (19,175.50 CuM/day x 1000/24/3600) x 2.5 = 555 lit/sec Hence, Peak Flow condition is dominant Mar 2010 68
  65. 65. 11 WATER RETICULATION WATER SUPPLY 13.0 4 Reticulation Analysis 13.0 8.5 9.5 3 180.0 lit/sec 8 Node 8 8.0 lit/sec 6.0 Formation Ground Level 6.0m ODL 13.0 Highest Supply Level 13.0m ODL 13.0 6.5 Pipe No 1, Length 1000m 1 5 99.0 lit/sec 1000 BWL 32.0 Bottom Water Level 32.0m ODL R5 Service Tank R5 13.0 7.5 13.0 31.0 lit/sec 7.0 12.0 6.0 8 R5 2 6 1.0 lit/sec Iteration using BWL 32.0 1 218.0 lit/sec 1 11 Hardy-Cross method 7 9 1000 1500 10.0 lit/sec 6.0 10 7.5 12 7 13 13.0 1000 7.0 1500 6.0 13.0 13.0 8.0 lit/sec Peak Flow Analysis 13.0 Peak Factor = 2.5 11 6.0 Mar 2010 70
  66. 66. 11 WATER RETICULATION WATER SUPPLY Reticulation Analysis Node ID Elevation Base Demand Head (m) Residual (m) Demand LPS Pressure LPS 1 Resv 33 #NA -555.0 33.0 0.00 2 13 31 31.0 31.82 18.82 3 13 8 8.0 28.91 15.91 4 13 180 180.0 27.27 14.27 5 13 99 99.0 24.93 11.93 6 6 0 0.0 29.12 23.12 7 6 0 0.0 29.10 23.10 8 13 1 1.0 27.40 14.40 9 13 10 10.0 26.66 13.66 10 13 0 0.0 29.27 16.27 11 13 8 8.0 29.55 16.55 12 13 218 218.0 30.41 17.41 71 Analysis using Epanet Version 2.0 Mar 2010 71
  67. 67. 11 WATER RETICULATION WATER SUPPLY Reticulation Analysis Link ID Length (m) Diameter Roughness Flow LPS Velocity Headloss (mm) (m/s) (m/km) Pipe 1 1000 900 100 555.00 0.87 1.18 Pipe 2 5000 800 100 277.05 0.55 0.58 Pipe 3 3000 800 100 269.05 0.54 0.55 Pipe 4 2000 450 100 89.05 0.56 1.17 Pipe 5 4000 200 100 -9.95 0.32 1.05 Pipe 6 1000 200 100 1.17 0.04 0.02 Pipe 7 1000 200 100 -3.69 0.12 0.17 Pipe 8 2000 300 100 -9.87 0.14 0.14 Pipe 9 2000 300 100 -17.83 0.25 0.43 Pipe 10 3000 800 100 -246.95 0.49 0.47 Pipe 11 1500 150 100 4.87 0.28 1.13 Pipe 12 1000 150 100 3.87 0.22 0.74 Pipe 13 1500 150 100 -6.13 0.35 1.74 Pipe 14 1000 200 100 -11.12 0.35 1.29 Analysis using Epanet Version 2.0 Mar 2010 72
  68. 68. 11 WATER RETICULATION WATER SUPPLY Reticulation Pipes Network BWL 32.0 Bottom Water Level 32.0m ODL R5 Service Tank R5 R5 BWL 32.0 Mar 2010 73
  69. 69. 11 WATER RETICULATION WATER SUPPLY Overall Water Supply System R7 LEGEND Transmission Pipeline Distribution Pipelines R5 External Storage Tanks Main Reticulation Pipelines Timur R6 R4 R2 R9 R8 R1 R3 WATER DEMANDS From Treatment To Kuala Lumpur Plant TANKS SCHEDULE Mar 2010 74
  70. 70. 12 TYPICAL DRAWINGS
  71. 71. 12 TYPICAL DRAWINGS WATER SUPPLY Proposed Bulk Meter Proposed Tapping Point by Hot tapping method Transmission Pipeline Mar 2010 76
  72. 72. 12 TYPICAL DRAWINGS WATER SUPPLY Water Reticulation Mar 2010 77
  73. 73. 12 TYPICAL DRAWINGS WATER SUPPLY Plan of Suction Tank & Pump House Pump House Suction Tank Mar 2010 78
  74. 74. 12 TYPICAL DRAWINGS WATER SUPPLY Cross-section of Suction Tank & Pump House Mar 2010 79
  75. 75. 12 24800 9200 24000 4700 9200 TYPICAL DRAWINGS WATER SUPPLY Elevated R.C. Water Tank 5765 TWL=35.26m 5265 BWL=30.0m 6667 6667 Overflow pipe 26668 6667 6667 1450 Mar 2010 80
  76. 76. 12 TYPICAL DRAWINGS WATER SUPPLY Constructed Water Storage Tanks & Pumping System Mar 2010 81
  77. 77. Thank You Terima Kasih Mar 2010 82
  78. 78. Questions & Answers Email: Ir.Aziz@yahoo.com July 2009 83

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