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UPeace Lecture on Peacebuilding
July 7, 2010

Peacebuilding: An Overview

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  • Referring to the wall, Which of these issues are personal issues? Which are Societal? Which are Institutional?
  • Referring to the wall, Which of these issues are personal issues? Which are Societal? Which are Institutional?
  • U peace presentation peacebuilding_slideshare

    1. 1. A presentation by Nikki Al Ben S. Delfin Gaston Zaballa Ortigas Peace Institute/ Generation Peace Youth Network University for Peace Civil-Political Rights and Peoples’ Participation Peacebuilding and Related Concepts: An Overview from a Practioner’s Perspective
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Disclaimer and Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of Peacebuilding and its Concepts: Fundamentals and the Rights-Based Approach to Peace </li></ul><ul><li>Open Forum or 10-minute break </li></ul><ul><li>Peoples’ Participation: Civil Society in Peacebuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Peacebuilding in different contexts </li></ul>
    3. 3. Activity 1: Issues related to Peacebuilding <ul><li>Discuss the issues related to Peace[building] in your own context (i.e. region, community, or country)? </li></ul><ul><li>Write the top 2 and paste them on the wall. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Activity 2. Wants and Needs <ul><li>Divide yourselves in two groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 1: What are your BASIC NEEDS in order to survive? </li></ul><ul><li>Group 2: What are your needs BEYOND SURVIVAL? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    6. 6. Quantity and Quality of Life
    7. 7. Human Dignity <ul><li>Preamble: </li></ul><ul><li>“… recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world…” </li></ul><ul><li>Article I of the UDHR: </li></ul><ul><li>“ All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.” </li></ul>
    8. 8. Human Dignity <ul><li>The dignity of the human person is not only a fundamental right in itself but constitutes the real basis of fundamental rights. </li></ul>
    9. 9. What, then, is the problem?
    10. 10. How are the Peacebuilding Issues connected to Human Rights Issues? <ul><li>Simply put, violations and non-realization of human rights are situations of UNPEACE. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Just Peace <ul><li>Peace thrives along with social justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Social justice can be realized through human rights </li></ul><ul><li>A holistic approach to peace is through a rights-based approach </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jobs, justice, food, freedom” – Pepe Diokno </li></ul>
    12. 12. Just Peace <ul><li>SIX PATHS TO PEACE </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuit of social, economic and political reforms to address the root causes of armed conflicts and social unrest </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus-building and empowerment for peace </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuit of peaceful, negotiated settlement with rebel groups </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of programs for reconciliation, rehabilitation and reintegration of ex-combatants and civilian victims of armed conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing concerns arising from continuing armed conflict, and </li></ul><ul><li>Building and nurturing a climate conducive to peace. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Debunking Human Rights Myths (Delfin, 2009) <ul><li>Rights vs. Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Not just a legalistic and technical framework: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond the international norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond Western Notions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before WWII and the UN establishment </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Debunking Human Rights Myths (Delfin, 2009) <ul><li>Simple to complex needs, Simple to complex rights: Human, Social, Economic and Political Evolution </li></ul>
    15. 15. View from the West View from the East “ Peace is as an absence of dissension, violence, or war” “ Peace is also seen as concord, or harmony and tranquility. It is viewed as peace of mind or serenity, especially in the East. It is defined as a state of law or civil government, a state of justice or goodness, a balance or equilibrium of Powers. “
    16. 16. Core Ideas <ul><li>Human Dignity as the Basis of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights as the Basis of Peace and Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Peace and Human Rights as the Basis of Peacebuilding </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Assertour common humanity our humandignity our human </li></ul><ul><li>rights ! </li></ul>
    18. 18. 273 out of 365, 113 are here.
    19. 19. Why are there armed conflicts?
    20. 20. Self Determination <ul><li>“ All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.” (Art. 1 of ICCPR/ICESCR) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Bangsamoro Struggle for Self Determination, some triggers: <ul><li>Historical Injustices </li></ul><ul><li>- Sultanates </li></ul><ul><li>- Colonial History: Moors and the Treaty of Paris </li></ul><ul><li>- US Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>- ‘Foreign’ Settlers in Mindanao </li></ul><ul><li>- Political, Economic and Cultural Alienation </li></ul><ul><li>- Massacres and Killings </li></ul><ul><li>2. Control of Resources </li></ul>
    22. 22. Forms of Conflict
    23. 23. DEFINING PEACE (CPE Diagram, n.d.) PEACE NEGATIVE PEACE Absence of direct/physical violence (both macro and micro) POSITIVE PEACE Presence of conditions of well-being and just relationships: social, economic, political, ecological Direct Violence e.g., war, torture, child and woman abuse Structural Violence e.g., poverty, hunger Socio-cultural Violence e.g., intolerance of the “other” Ecological Violence e.g., pollution, overconsumption VIOLENCE
    24. 24. Nuances in Peace Initiatives <ul><li>1. Peacekeeping: Conflict Management </li></ul><ul><li>2. Peacemaking: Conflict Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>3. Peacebuilding: Conflict Transformation </li></ul>
    25. 25. Peacekeeping <ul><li>relating to the preservation of peace, especially the supervision by international forces of a truce between hostile nations. </li></ul><ul><li>is a military third-party intervention to assist the transition from violent conflict to stable peace. (American Heritage Dictionary, n.d.) </li></ul><ul><li>A traditional peacekeeping operation is established when parties to a conflict, typically two states, agree to the interposition of UN troops to uphold a ceasefire. (SAIS, n.d.) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Peacekeeping Characteristics of Interposition: <ul><li>neutrality (remains impartial in the dispute and does not intervene in the fighting); </li></ul><ul><li>light military equipment; </li></ul><ul><li>use of force only in self-defense; </li></ul><ul><li>consent of the parties to the dispute; </li></ul><ul><li>prerequisite of a ceasefire agreement; and </li></ul><ul><li>contribution of contingents on a voluntary basis. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Peacemaking <ul><li>focuses primarily on the negotiation process, as it forms the basis for mediation, conciliation, and arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>is a diplomatic effort </li></ul><ul><li>A peace agreement is the desired end result </li></ul><ul><li>To be sustainable, peace agreements have to include all key players of the conflict, end destructive violence, which is often established through a ceasefire agreement, and address the root causes of the conflict. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Peacebuilding <ul><li>Peacebuilding, or post-conflict reconstruction , is a process that facilitates the establishment of durable peace,building and political as well as economic transformationand tries to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing root causes and effects of conflict through reconciliation, institution . </li></ul><ul><li>Peacebuilding is complex and results materialize only in the medium and long-term. </li></ul><ul><li>A great number of agents engage in a wide variety of reconstruction efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>These efforts include addressing the functional and emotional dimensions of peacebuilding in specified target areas, such as civil society and legal institutions, among others. Evaluating the success and failure of peacebuilding efforts is therefore especially challenging. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Peacebuilding Responses/Interventions (Ferrer, 1997) <ul><li>Peace Constituency Building </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict Reduction Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict Settlement Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Peace Research and Training Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Social Development Work </li></ul>
    30. 30. “ Strategic Peacebuilding” <ul><li>Kapag ang mga likas yaman, aktor, at mga istratehiya ay alinsunod sa pagkamit ng mga mithiin at matugunan ang mga isyung pangmatagalan. </li></ul><ul><li>Isang permanenteng proseso na sumasaklaw sa lahat ng mga gawaing masusi sa pagbuo at pagpapalawig ng kapayapaan at pagsugpo sa karahasan </li></ul>
    31. 31. “ Strategic Peacebuilding” <ul><li>A permanent process that encompasses all activities that are key in building and broadening peace and minimizing (or eradicating) violence </li></ul><ul><li>Resources, actors, and strategies are in synchronicity and synergy toward addressing long-term issues </li></ul>
    32. 32. Peacebuilding Responses According to Roles: <ul><li>Service Provider </li></ul><ul><li>Watchdog </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate for Alternatives </li></ul>
    33. 33. Peacebuilding Responses according to Aims <ul><li>Direct Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing the Consequences of the Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Working on the Social Fabric </li></ul>
    34. 34. Initiatives: Multi-Track Diplomacy Track 1 Track 2 Track 3
    35. 35. Track 1 TOP LEADERSHIP Government, Negotiating Panels official government diplomacy whereby communication and interaction is between governments Between the main opposing parties High-level discussions, ceasefire, peace talks
    36. 36. Track 2 NGOs, Practitioners, Academe, Media, etc. Unofficial interaction and intervention of non-state actors Professional Conflict Resolution Business NGOs Research Faith/Belief Systems Media Aid community Civil Society Initiatives Local government Training Education Conflict Resolution Workshops/Exercises, Peace Commissions, Advocacy work, Constituency building
    37. 37. Expanded Tracks (IMTD,n.d.) <ul><li>governments </li></ul><ul><li>professional organisations </li></ul><ul><li>the business community </li></ul><ul><li>private citizens </li></ul><ul><li>training, research and educational institutions </li></ul><ul><li>activists </li></ul><ul><li>church organisations </li></ul><ul><li>funding </li></ul><ul><li>media </li></ul>
    38. 38. Track 3 Communities Stakeholders directly affected by the armed conflicts Grassroot communities Grassroots training, Prejudice reduction, psychosocial trauma healing, community dialogues, etc.
    39. 42. Core Ideas <ul><li>Linkage of Human Dignity and Peoples’ Self Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage of Peoples to Power and Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage of Peacebuilding and Governance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy as delivery systems of human rights (Koenig, 2008) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 43. 1. Conflict is a natural and continuing reality of life 2. There can be no genuine peace without addressing the root causes of conflict. 3. There can be no real reconciliation and peace without repentance and justice 4.. Respect of all creation is the foundation of Peace 5. Peace and reconciliation should lead to equal and just relationships 6. Conflict is both an opportunity for transformation and development or destruction. Its outcome is dependent on how conflicting parties and stakeholders deal with it. 7. Only conflicting parties can truly reconcile their conflicts but a credible, neutral, concerned and capable facilitator expedite reconciliation
    41. 44. The work towards a just and sustainable peace is PEACEBUILDING. “ Peace is not just the absence of war: Peace through justice, peace by means of peace.”
    42. 45. Thank you. <ul><li>References and Outline of Presentation can be found at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/ihateyourflashdisk </li></ul>