Peacekeeping 18.05.09

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  • Peacekeeping 18.05.09

    1. 1. Peace Operations Thierry Tardy 18 May 2009 May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 1
    2. 2. UN Conflict management entails three principal activities: • Conflict prevention and peacemaking • Peacekeeping • Peacebuilding  Conflict Management cycle May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 2
    3. 3. Peacekeeping • ‘Peacekeeping is a technique designed to pre- serve the peace, however fragile, where fighting has been halted, and to assist in implementing agreements achieved by the peacemakers. • Over the years, peacekeeping has evolved from a primarily military model of observing cease-fires and the separation of forces after inter-state wars, to incorporate a complex model of many elements – military, police and civilian – working together to help lay the foundations for sustainable peace.’ UN DPKO Capstone Doctrine, 2008 May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 3
    4. 4. Peacekeeping activities • Create a secure and stable environment while strengthening the State’s ability to provide security, with full respect for the rule of law and human rights. • Facilitate the political process by promoting dialogue and reconciliation and supporting the establishment of legitimate and effective institutions of governance. • Provide a framework for ensuring that all UN and other international actors pursue their activities at the country-level in a coordinated manner. UN DPKO Capstone Doctrine, 2008 May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 4
    5. 5. Peacebuilding • ‘Peacebuilding involves a range of measures targeted to reduce the risk of relapsing into conflict by strengthening national capacities for conflict management, and to lay the foundation for sustainable peace and development. Peacebuilding is a complex, long-term process of creating the necessary conditions for sustainable peace. It works by addressing the structural causes of violent conflict in a comprehensive manner. Peacebuilding measures address core issues that effect the functioning of society and the State, and seek to enhance the capacity of the State to effectively and legitimately carry out its core functions. UN DPKO Capstone Doctrine, 2008 May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 5
    6. 6. Peacebuilding activities • providing technical assistance for democratic development and good governance • promoting economic development • reintegrating former combatants • strengthening the rule of law • improving respect for human rights through monitoring and investigation of abuses • promoting conflict resolution techniques May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 6
    7. 7. Peacekeeping and peacebuilding • Continuum • Activities short of war -> Impartiality • At the heart of the evolution of the concept of security (‘Human Security’) • No substitute for state action (sovereignty) May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 7
    8. 8. Crisis Management Spectrum Conflict Prevention Conflict Peace Peacemaking enforcement Cease-fire Peacekeeping Post-conflict Peacebuilding Political UN DPKO Capstone Doctrine, 2008 Process May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 8
    9. 9. Peace Operations • What role for the UN in peace operations (versus regional organisations)? • What are the current challenges? • Overstretch May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 9
    10. 10. UN overstretch • Peace Operations (February 2009) • 18 Operations • 113 000 personnel • 120 Countries involved • Budget: USD 7.1 billion • Seven-fold increase in personnel since 2000 May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 10
    11. 11. Peace Operations • What role for the UN in peace operations (versus regional organisations)? • What are the current challenges? • Overstretch • Conditions of success • robust peacekeeping • commitment gap • coordination/integrated mission May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 11
    12. 12. Peacebuilding • What is Peacebuilding about? • Challenges/dilemmas of peacebuilding • Long-term goals / short term commitments (Peacebuilding Commission) • dependency vs. local capacity • coordination problems (with peacekeeping) May 22, 2009 ● www.gcsp.ch ● 12

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