Armed conflict and peacebuilding in rwanda


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Armed conflict and peacebuilding in rwanda

  1. 1. Armed conflict and Peacebuilding in Rwanda By: Evans Korang Adjei , Faizan Khan, Jenny Jonsson, Jessica Bragd, Mohammed Arif, Mussie Tomziegi, Nina Ström, Tsegay Tikue
  2. 2. Location of Rwanda
  3. 3. The hourglass model:
  4. 4. History of the Rwanda's crisis <ul><li>Ethnic and politically instigated crisis (between the Tutsis And the Hutus) </li></ul><ul><li>There had been always been disagreements between the Hutus (majority, 85%), Tutsis (minority, 12%) and Twa, 3% </li></ul><ul><li>The two ethnic groups are actually very simi lar ( they speak the same language, inhabit the same areas and follow the same traditions). </li></ul><ul><li>But the animosity grew substantially during the colonial periods ( Issuance of identity cards classifying people according to their ethnicity in1931 by the Belgians). </li></ul>EK/FK
  5. 5. History cont’d <ul><li>The Belgians considered the Tutsis to be superior to the Hutus (because of the believe that the Tutsis had Caucasian ancestry). </li></ul><ul><li>The Tutsis enjoyed better jobs and educational opportunities than the Hutus until 1962 (when Rwanda gained independence). </li></ul><ul><li>Hutus then became presidents (Gregoire Kayibanda, 1961-1973 and Juvenal Habyarimana 1973-1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Resentment among the Hutus gradually built up, culminating in series of riots killing more than 20,000 Tutsis (Many more Tutsis fled to the neighbouring countries of Burundi, Tanzania , DR Congo and Uganda) </li></ul>
  6. 6. History cont’d <ul><li>In 1991, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invaded the country starting the Rwandan Civil War ( they signed to the Arusha accord in1993) </li></ul><ul><li>The genocide was ignited by the death of the Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana (when his plane was shot down above Kigali airport on 6 April 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential guards immediately initiated a campaign of vengeance (i.e. radio propaganda) </li></ul><ul><li>Between April and June 1994, an estimation of over 800,000 Rwandans were killed in the space of 100 days. </li></ul>
  7. 7. History cont’d <ul><li>Most of the dead were Tutsis and moderate Hutus (most of those who perpetrated the crime were Hutus) </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives were given to people who partook in the crime (such as money or food, and also appropriate the land of the Tutsis they killed). </li></ul><ul><li>The Rwandans were largely left alone by the International Community ( upon numerous attempts by UN to negotiate ceasefire failed and also UN troops withdrew after the murder of 10 soldiers ) . </li></ul><ul><li>RPF took over Kigali and call for ceasefire , (As soon as it became apparent that the RPF was victorious, an estimated two million Hutus fled to DR Congo). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Peacebuilding in Rwanda <ul><li>Rwanda made good progress toward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resettlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National reconciliation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demobilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reintegration of ex-combatants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The role of women in rebuilding trust & reconciling former enemies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Research and Dialogue for Peace (IRDP) and the international organization Interpeace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nation peacebuilding commission (PBC) </li></ul></ul>TT/MT
  9. 9. Reconstruction in Rwanda <ul><li>Rwanda achieved impressive progress since the 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitate devastated infrastructure and restore social norms </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious development strategy seeking to transform the country from a low-income, agriculture based economy to a knowledge-based service economy by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Successful reform efforts resulted in double-digit growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>Structural reforms for Development (Extensive economic and governance reforms 1995up to 2008) rebuilding institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Remarkable progress in human wellbeing and service (Primary school, health care, access to pour water…) </li></ul><ul><li>Government of National Unity (GNU) put ensure women play active role </li></ul>
  10. 10. Efforts to stop the war and rebuild the society in Rwanda <ul><li>The role of the international community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appling Lusaka’s cease-fire agreement disarming the ex.FAR/interahamwe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encouraging Rwandan refugees to return home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lusaka cease-fire agreement and the creation of Joint Military Commission (JMC) </li></ul><ul><li>A multifaceted approach of luring refugees and combatants back to Rwanda adopting different strategies </li></ul><ul><li>The Arusha Agreement </li></ul>
  11. 11. Actors who play the role in Rwanda <ul><li>The Government of Rwanda </li></ul><ul><li>United Nation (UN) </li></ul><ul><li>African Union (AU) </li></ul><ul><li>International Development Association (IDA) </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank’s, </li></ul><ul><li>Department for International Development (DFID) </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Military Commission (JMC ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Constitution of Rwanda <ul><li>2003 </li></ul><ul><li>A democratic constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses the democratic rights and freedoms of people </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul>JB/JJ
  13. 13. Organs of government <ul><li>Legislative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament, which consists of two chambers: the chamber of deputies and the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executive   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President and Cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judicial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special interest: Gacaca Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the constitution </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Characteristics <ul><li>Created to hinder a new genocide and hatred between people </li></ul><ul><li>Unity- no groups, everyone is Rwandan </li></ul><ul><li>No political organizations originating from one specific group/sex/religion/etc is allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Gender- at least one third of the parliament shall be women </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>Different commissions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Strengths and Weaknesses <ul><li>Strengths: Democratic rights, Strong legislation against hatred, Women are involved </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses: Are women involved? To strong legislation- hinder democratization? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Challenges <ul><li>Reconciliation process not working sufficiently enough </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid economic growth, but high level of relative poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic deficit </li></ul>NS/MA
  17. 17. What can be done? <ul><li>More inclusive peacebuilding and strengthen civil society </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming gender in the long-term peacebuilding project </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperatives as a strategy to address both economic situation and reconciliation issues as well as strengthening civil society </li></ul>
  18. 18. Goals to be Achieved <ul><li>Construction of the nation and its social capital </li></ul><ul><li>Development of a credible State effectively governed by the rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>Development of human resources so that Rwanda may prosper economically based on knowledge and know-how </li></ul><ul><li>Development and entrepreneurship of the private sector; </li></ul><ul><li>Development of basic infrastructure including urban planning; </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization of agriculture and livestock sectors. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Challenges Faced by Outsiders <ul><li>Donors may and do radically differ in their assessments of the situation at hand, and hence of the way to move forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Donor objectives and principles, no matter how laudable individually, may conflict, formal justice, economic efficiency and political imperative, short-term security and human rights etc….. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cont’d <ul><li>Donors need to prioritize their scarce resources </li></ul><ul><li>Given the difficulty of understanding post-conflict dynamics errors are very likely and the cost of error is extremely high and entirely borne by locals </li></ul><ul><li>Donors only control the form, but not the substance, of the institutions they help build. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thank you! Questions Where in the hourglass is Rwanda today? Is democracy a process or end?