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Qualitative Research Method - an Introduction (updated jan 2011)

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An introduction to qualitative research method for the undergraduate students in psychology.

An introduction to qualitative research method for the undergraduate students in psychology.

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  • 1. Qualitative Research Methodology - an Introduction - by Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra ( ) Vers. 2.0 Hangzhou, March 2010 • School of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences • Zhejiang University, Xixi Campus • 310028 Hangzhou • CHINA • • Phone: ++86 571 8827 3337 • Fax: +86 571 8827 3326 • E-Mail: htjitra@zju.edu.cn • Homepage: http://www.horatjitra.com •
  • 2. Qualitative Research Method Qualitative Research Paradigms … any type of research that produces findings not arrived by statistical procedures or other means of quantification (Strauss & Corbin, 1998 p.10). It can refers to research about: • persons’ lives, • lived experiences • behaviors, emotions and feelings • organizational functioning • social movements • cultural phenomena • interaction between nations Basically there are three major components of qualitative research: 1. Data, which can come from various sources (interviews, observations, documents, records, films etc.) 2. Procedures, which consist of conceptualizing and reducing data as well as elaborating and relating categories 3. Written and verbal reports @ Tjitra, 2010 2
  • 3. Qualitative Research Method Outline 1 What is qualitative research? 4 2 Qualitative research process 8 3 What is good qualitative research? 18 @ Tjitra, 2010 3
  • 4. Qualitative Research Method What are the most important differences between qualitative and quantitative research? ? @ Tjitra, 2010 4
  • 5. Qualitative Research Method Comparisons of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Paradigms e.g. Survey on Employee Satisfaction: Questionnaires (Statistic) or Interviews (Text) Quantitative Method Qualitative Method • Laboratory • Field • „hard“ Method • „soft“ Method • Natural Science • Social / Humanistic Science • Deductive • Inductive • Nomothetic • Idiographic • Explanation • Understanding adapted from Bortz, 1995 @ Tjitra, 2010 5
  • 6. Qualitative Research Method Qualitative Analysis: What for ? Construction of Theories and Hypothesis Pilot Study Deep Analysis Case Study Process Analysis Classification Evaluation of Theories and Hypothesis Mayring, 1997 @ Tjitra, 2010 6
  • 7. Qualitative Research Method The Foundations and Pillars of Qualitative Thinking Strong Focus on Description • Importance of Single Case Study • Openness • Control of Method The Results Should be Subject First Understood as a Process • Wholeness of Generalization • History • Argumentative Generalization • Problem Orientation • Induction Natural and Daily Environment • Rules Concept • Quantification Strong Focus on Interpretation • Pre-Understanding • Introspection • Researcher-Object Interaction Mayring, 1996 @ Tjitra, 2010 7
  • 8. Qualitative Research Method Models of process and theory Linear model of the Operational- research Theory Hypotheses Sampling Collection Interpretation Validation ization process Comparing Circular model of the Preliminary Collection Interpretation Collection Interpretation research Case Case Theory assumptions process Sampling Sampling Collection Interpretation Comparing Comparing Case @ Tjitra, 2010 8
  • 9. Qualitative Research Method Research Design for the integration of qualitative and quantitative research Qualitative (continuous collection of both sorts of data) Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative Qualitative (Exploration) (Questionnaire) (deepening and assessing results) Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative (Survey) (Field Study) (Experiment) Adapted from Miles & Huberman, 1994 @ Tjitra, 2010 9
  • 10. Qualitative Research Method Qualitative Research Design and Prozess Qualitative Research Design Single Case Document Action Qualitative Qualitative Field Research Analyses Analyses Research Experiments Evaluation Process of Qualitative Research Data Preparation Analyzing Collection Process Process @ Tjitra, 2010 10
  • 11. Qualitative Research Method The Most Common Qualitative Research Design Document Analyses Single Case Action Research Analyses Research Design Qualitative Evaluation Field Research Research The Qualitative Experiments @ Tjitra, 2010 11
  • 12. Qualitative Research Method Qualitative Field Research A disciplined inquiry examining the personal meanings of individuals’ experiences and actions in the context of their social environment It is appropriate for topics which are:  Defy simple quantification (not counting numbers of interactions of the subjects)  Require the comprehensiveness of the perspective the researcher can provide (studying a culture)  Need the researcher’s presence in their natural setting to best learn about behavior (gang, homeless, etc.)  Investigate social processes over time (demonstrations, courtroom procedures, public hearing) @ Tjitra, 2010 12
  • 13. Qualitative Research Method Qualitative Data Collection Group Discussion Qualitative Data Observation Interview @ Tjitra, 2010 13
  • 14. Qualitative Research Method Qualitative Data Preparation Process Presentation Method Data Preparation Construction Recording of Description System Technique @ Tjitra, 2010 14
  • 15. Qualitative Research Method Qualitative Data Analyzing Approaches Grounded Theory: Content Analysis: Inductional Approach Deductional Approach Theory Theory Explanation Data Instance The Social World The Social World (Gilbert, N. (ed.) (1993) Researching Social Life, Sage, London) @ Tjitra, 2010 15
  • 16. Qualitative Research Method How can you “judge” a good research in psychology? ? @ Tjitra, 2010 16
  • 17. Qualitative Research Method Quality Factors of Psychological Research ... is standardized situation as well as analyzing and interpretation process in performing Objectivity psychological research. ... the best available approximation to the truth or falsity of propositions, incl. propositions about Validity cause. ... is the "consistency" or "repeatability" of your Reliability measures. A measure is considered reliable if it would give us the same result over and over again. @ Tjitra, 2010 17
  • 18. Qualitative Research Method Quality Factors of Qualitative Research Process Closeness to the Documentation Research Object Argumentative Communicative Validation Interpretation Assurance Following Triangulation Rules @ Tjitra, 2010 18
  • 19. Qualitative Research Method Triangulation: Three Pillars of Good Qualitative Research Interpreter Data Resources Methods Theories @ Tjitra, 2010 19
  • 20. Qualitative Research Method Important common features of qualitative research • Appropriateness of methods and theories • Perspectives of the participants and their diversity • Reflexivity of the researcher and the research • Variety of approaches and methods in qualitative research • “Verstehen” as epistemological principle • Reconstructing cases as starting point • Construction of reality as basis • Text as empirical material @ Tjitra, 2010 20
  • 21. Qualitative Research Method Principles of quality management in the qualitative research process • A definition of the goals to be reached and the standards of the project to be kept, which should be as clear as possible; all researchers and co-workers have to be integrated in this definition. • A definition, how these goals and standards, and more generally the quality to be obtained, can be reached; and therefore, a consensus about the way how to apply certain methods, perhaps through joint interview training, and its analysis are preconditions for quality in the research process. • A clear definition of the responsibilities for obtaining quality in the research process. • The transparency of the judgment and the assessment and quality in the process. @ Tjitra, 2010 21
  • 22. Qualitative Research Method Thanks for your interest Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at hora_t@mac.com @ Tjitra, 2010 22