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Restrictiveclauses2

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  • 1. By Holly Cin 5CDE/Summer 2013
  • 2.  This information identifies the noun and is therefore necessary.  Example: The teacher who teaches 5E is an excellent teacher.  “who teaches 5E” is essential information; otherwise you don’t know which teacher we are referring to and themeaningisn’t clear. * Essential clauses are attached to the antecedent (noun) WITHOUT COMMAS to separate them.
  • 3.  This information does not identify the noun and is therefore EXTRA. You can remove this adjective clause and the sentence will still be clear.  Example: Holly Cin, who teaches 5E, is an excellent teacher.  “who teaches 5E” is extra information here since you already know who Holly Cin is; she has been identified by name. Therefore, any information you give me about Holly Cin is now EXTRA. *NON-Essential clauses are separated from their antecedents (nouns) WITH COMMAS.
  • 4. TWO RULES to know: 1. When commas are used, the pronoun THAT may not be used (only WHO, WHOM, WHICH, WHOSE, WHERE, and WHEN may be used) 2. Object pronouns cannot be omitted.  Example: My mother, whom I owe my life to, is a remarkable woman.  Incorrect: My mother, THAT I owe my life to, is a remarkable woman.  Incorrect: My mother, I owe my life to, is a remarkable woman.
  • 5.  Proper names are always followed by non- essential clauses. Example: Texas, which is the largest state in the continental U.S., is famous for oil, cowboys, and the University of Houston.  Since we already know what Texas is, any information that follows it is NON-essential, and therefore, separated by commas.  We could remove the non-essential clause and still understand the sentence 100%.
  • 6.  Proper names are always followed by non- essential clauses.  Ex. Greg Urquhart, who has been teaching at the LCC since time immemorial, has a great sense of humor.  Since we already know who Greg Urquhart is, any information that follows is NON-essential, and therefore, separated by commas.  We could remove the non-essential clause and still understand the sentence 100%.
  • 7.  Once the person or thing has been identified, all information which follows in an adjective clause becomes non-essential.  Ex. We had rice and beans for dinner last night. The rice, which was prepared with onions and garlic, tasted delicious.  In the above example, you know which rice we’re talking about in the second sentence because it has been identified in the first sentence.
  • 8.  Compare the meaning of the following two sentences. In one case, the information in the adjective clause is essential to the meaning; in the other, it is extra.  1. We took some children on a picnic. The children, who wanted to play soccer, ran to an open field as soon as we arrived at the park.  2. We took some children on a picnic. The children who wanted to play soccer ran to an open field as soon as we arrived at the park. The others played baseball.
  • 9.  Compare the meaning of the following two sentences. In one case, the information in the adjective clause is essential to the meaning; in the other, it is extra.  1. I met with some students after class yesterday. The students, who were from 5E, had prepared lots of good questions for me to answer.  2. I met with some students after class yesterday. The students who were from 5E had lots of good questions. The students who were from 5F had nothing at all to say.
  • 10. 1. I met with some students after class yesterday. The students, who were from 5E, had prepared lots of good questions for me to answer. In this case, all of the students were from 5E so the adjective clause “who were from 5E” was not essential to identify them. 2. I met with some students after class yesterday. The students who were from 5E had lots of good questions. The students who were from 5F had nothing at all to say. ◦ In this case, some of the students were from 5F and some were from 5E so the adjective clause “who were from 5E” was essential to identify them.
  • 11. Adjective Clauses Summer 2013 Holly Cin
  • 12. Adjective Clauses (also known as Relative Clauses)  Adjective clauses function just like adjectives. They give extra information about nouns.  Adjective clauses are dependent clauses. They depend on the nouns which they modify.  Adjective clauses should be placed as close as possible to the nouns which they modify.  The relative clause connects with the main clause by using relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, whomever, and that. The relative pronouns are substitutes for the original noun or pronoun. Example: The woman who lives next door is coming for dinner tonight. This can be divided into two sentences: The woman is coming for dinner tonight. She lives next door. Example: The book which is on the table is my grammar book. This can be divided into two sentences: The book is my grammar book. It is on the table.
  • 13. There are two types of adjective clauses: Subject clauses and object clauses Subject clause: Example 1: The woman who lives next door is coming to dinner tonight. The woman is coming to dinner tonight. She lives next door. Because the woman and “she” are the same person, this is a subject clause. Example 2: The book which is on the table is my grammar book. The book is my grammar book. It is on the table. Because the book and “it” are the same thing, this is a subject clause.
  • 14. There are two types of adjective clauses: Subject clauses and object clauses Object clause: Example 1: The man who I saw last night at the theater was Mr. Jones. 1. The man was Mr. Jones. 2. I saw him last night at the theater. In sentence 1, the man is the subject. In sentence 2, I am the subject and the man (him) is the object. This makes this clause an object relative clause. Example 2: The movie which we saw last week wasn’t very good. 1. The movie wasn’t very good. 2. We saw it. In sentence 1, the movie is the subject. In sentence 2, we is the subject and it is the object. This makes the clause an object relative clause.