Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

RELATIVE CLAUSES

relative clauses explained for upper-intermediate students

  • Login to see the comments

RELATIVE CLAUSES

  1. 1. RELATIVE CLAUSES: 1) DEFINING 2) NON-DEFINING
  2. 2. DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES (DR) SHE LIKES PEOPLE WHO ALWAYS TELL THE TRUTH
  3. 3. NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES (NDR) MY FRIEND ANDREW, WHO IS SCOTTISH , PLAYS THE BAGPIPES
  4. 4. DR CLAUSES MORE COMMON IN SPOKEN LANGUAGE
  5. 5. NDR CLAUSES MORE COMMON IN WRITTEN LANGUAGE
  6. 6. DR CLAUSES <ul><li>POSSIBLE PRONOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>person thing </li></ul><ul><li>Subject WHO / THAT THAT / WHICH </li></ul><ul><li>Object ----- / THAT ----- / THAT </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIVE PRONOUN: OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>Did you like the present (that) I gave you? </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIVE PRONOUN: SUBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>I met a man who works in marketing </li></ul>
  7. 7. NDR CLAUSES <ul><li>POSSIBLE PRONOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>person thing </li></ul><ul><li>Subject WHO WHICH </li></ul><ul><li>Object WHO / WHOM WHICH </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIVE PRONOUN CANNOT BE LEFT OUT </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fill in the gaps with a relative pronoun <ul><li>The new terminal, ______ will be finished by May, has been designed by a famous architect </li></ul><ul><li>Have you finished the book ______ I lent you? </li></ul><ul><li>The Prime Minister, ______ the paparazzi follow everywhere, has a new girlfriend </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know the man ______ arrived just after you </li></ul>
  9. 9. PREPOSITIONS: DR AND NDR <ul><li>Prepositions come at the end in most cases </li></ul><ul><li>I can always rely on my friend  </li></ul><ul><li>She’s a friend I can always rely on </li></ul><ul><li>I went to school with Mary  </li></ul><ul><li>This is Mary, who I went to school with </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositions come before the pronoun in a formal written style </li></ul><ul><li>She is a friend on whom I can rely </li></ul><ul><li>It is a fact with which you cannot argue </li></ul>
  10. 10. OTHER RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHICH WHOSE WHAT WHY WHEN WHERE
  11. 11. WHICH <ul><li>Can be used in NDR clauses to refer to the whole of the sentence before </li></ul><ul><li>She arrived on time, which amazed everybody </li></ul><ul><li>They had everything ready for us, which was nice </li></ul>
  12. 12. WHOSE <ul><li>Can be used in both DR and NDR clauses </li></ul><ul><li>That’s the woman whose son ran over my dog </li></ul><ul><li>My parents, whose only interest is gardening, never go away on holiday </li></ul>
  13. 13. WHAT <ul><li>Is used in DR clauses to mean the thing that </li></ul><ul><li>Has she told you what’s worrying her? </li></ul><ul><li>What you need is love </li></ul>
  14. 14. WHY <ul><li>Can be used in DR clauses to mean the reason why </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know why we are arguing </li></ul>
  15. 15. WHEN, WHERE <ul><li>Can be used in DR and NDR clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me when you expect to arrive </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll go on Monday, when I’m free </li></ul><ul><li>The hotel where we stayed was excellent </li></ul><ul><li>He works in Oxford, where my sister lives </li></ul>
  16. 16. AND FINALLY...
  17. 17. REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>When a DR clause has a continuous or passive verb form, we can leave out who, that, which and the auxiliary </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone (who is) living in the area complains about the noise </li></ul><ul><li>The first novel (that was) written by Doris Lessing is The Grass Is Singing </li></ul>

×