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  1. 1. NOUN CLAUSE Noun clauses as the name implies, function as nouns. That is, they are word groups with their own subject and verb that in turn function as a subject, object, or complement in a sentence. Noun clauses also function sometimes as nouns of direct address or as appositives.
  2. 2. <ul><li>– Whatever you ask is going to be too much. (“Whatever you ask” is a noun clause and the subject of the sentence.) – We expect that the rain will stop soon. (“that the rain will stop soon” is the object of the verb “hope.”) – This is what I was waiting for. (“what I was waiting for” is the complement.) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>– I will give whoever writes the best essay an A in the course. (“whoever writes the best essay” is the indirect object.) – She spends money for whatever she wants. (“whatever she wants” is the object of the preposition.) – Whoever you are, come out of there. (“Whoever you are” is a noun of direct address.) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>– I don’t want it, whatever it is. (“whatever it is” is an appositive.)   </li></ul>
  5. 5. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE Adjective clauses modify nouns or pronouns. Most adjective clauses are also known as relative clauses because they are usually introduced by the relative pronoun who, which, that, whose, or whom . The relative pronoun is the subject or object of the clause it begins. Adjective clauses also usually appear immediately after the word that they modify.
  6. 6. ADVERB CLAUSE <ul><li>Adverb clauses are the type illustrated in the above discussion of complex sentences. In “Because the rain fell for three days, every street in town was flooded,” the “because” clause is adverbial. An adverb clause usually modifies a verb, but it may modify an adjective, an adverb, or even the rest of the sentence in which it appears. In our sample sentence, the “because” clause actually modifies the rest of the sentence (the independent clause). </li></ul>
  7. 7. FUNCTIONS OF NOUN CLAUSE <ul><li>Subject of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>EX : That he had even asked her made her angry. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Object </li></ul><ul><li>EX : Nobody knows how he got involved in such activities . </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Object </li></ul><ul><li>EX : I will inform who took the last exam of the score next week. </li></ul>
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS OF NOUN CLAUSE <ul><li>Subject Complement </li></ul><ul><li>EX : The insult was that he had even asked her . </li></ul><ul><li>Object of a Preposition </li></ul><ul><li>EX : She found fault in what he had asked her . </li></ul><ul><li>Object Complement </li></ul><ul><li>EX : You can call him what you wish . </li></ul>
  9. 9. FUNCTIONS OF NOUN CLAUSE <ul><li>Appositive to the Subject </li></ul><ul><li>EX : We that are older understand life better that children. </li></ul><ul><li>Appositive to the Object </li></ul><ul><li>EX : I hate those that oppose me . </li></ul>
  10. 10. FUNCTIONS OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSE <ul><li>Adjective Clause is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. An adjective clause begins with the relative pronouns &quot;who &quot;, &quot; whom&quot; &quot;that&quot;, &quot;whose&quot;, or &quot;which&quot;. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : They are searching for the one who borrowed the book . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did I tell you about the author whom I met ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The books that people read were mainly religious. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>EX : The meat which they ate was tainted . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The book which has the blue cover is mine. </li></ul></ul>FUNCTIONS OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
  12. 12. FUNCTIONS OF ADVERB CLAUSE <ul><li>A subordinate adverb clause can be introduced by the subordinating conjunctions in the following cases: </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb Clause of &quot; Cause and Effect &quot; with </li></ul><ul><li>“ because , since , so (that) , in order (that) ” </li></ul><ul><li>EX : You shouldn’t go out because it is raining now . </li></ul>
  13. 13. FUNCTIONS OF ADVERB CLAUSE <ul><li>Adverb Clause of &quot; Time &quot; with: “ after , before , since , when , while , whenever , as , as soon as , once , until , as/so long as , by the time , now that ” </li></ul><ul><li>EX : After Hamlet's uncle Claudius married Hamlet's mother , Hamlet wanted to kill him. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb Clause of &quot; Place &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>EX : You can go wherever you like . </li></ul>
  14. 14. FUNCTIONS OF ADVERB CLAUSE <ul><li>Adverb Clause of &quot; Condition &quot; with: “ if , unless , even if , only if , in case (that) , whether or not , in the event (that) , provided (that) ”. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : If the British co-operate , the Europeans may achieve monetary union. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb Clause of &quot; Opposition &quot; with: “ although , whereas , even though , though , while ” . </li></ul><ul><li>EX : They went on a field trip although it was raining . </li></ul>
  15. 15. FUNCTIONS OF ADVERB CLAUSE <ul><li>Adverb Clause of “ Manner &quot; with: “ as if , as though ”. </li></ul><ul><li>EX : He speaks English as if he were a native speaker . </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb Clause of “ Comparison &quot; with: “ than , as ” . </li></ul><ul><li>EX : She is taller than her sister is . </li></ul>