Relative Clauses


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Relative Clauses

  2. 2. <ul><li>We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>By combining sentences with a relative clause, your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. How to Form Relative Clauses? <ul><li>Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. You want to know who she is and ask a friend whether he knows her. You could say: </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl?” <ul><li>That sounds rather complicated, doesn't it? </li></ul><ul><li>It would be easier with a relative clause: you put both pieces of information into one sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Start with the most important thing – you want to know who the girl is. </li></ul>
  5. 5. “ Do you know the girl …” <ul><li>As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in the additional information – the girl is talking to Tom. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Use „the girl“ only in the first part of the sentence, in the second part replace it with the relative pronoun (for people, use the relative pronoun „who“). So the final sentence is: <ul><li>“ Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?” </li></ul>
  7. 7. In other words... <ul><li>It is necessary to use relative pronouns to join two sentences and at the end we'll have a relative clause. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. RELATIVE PRONOUNS <ul><li>The relative pronouns are those words that help us to join two sentences by replacing another one. </li></ul><ul><li>Let's see them... </li></ul>
  9. 9. Relative pronoun: WHO (quien)‏ <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>I told you about the woman who lives next door. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use: Subject or object pronoun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for people. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Relative pronoun: WHICH (El cual, la cual)‏ <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li> Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use: Subject or object pronoun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for animals or things. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Relative pronoun: WHICH (Lo cual)‏ <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>He couldn’t read which surprised me. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use: Referring to a whole sentence. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Relative pronoun: WHOSE (Cuyo/a)‏ <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use: Possession for people animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and things. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Relative pronoun: WHOM (a quien)‏ <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use: Object pronoun for people, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>especially in non-defining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relative clauses. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Relative pronoun: THAT (Que)‏ <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use: Subject or object pronoun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible)‏ </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Exercise 1: Complete with who, which or whose. <ul><li>1. This is the bank ______ was robbed yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A boy _____sister is in my class was in the bank at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The man _____robbed the bank had two pistols. </li></ul><ul><li>4. He wore a mask _____made him look like Mickey Mouse. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>5. He came with a friend_____ waited outside in the car. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The woman _____gave him the money was young. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The bag _____contained the money was yellow. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The people _____were in the bank were very frightened. </li></ul><ul><li>9. A man ______mobile was ringing did not know what to do. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>10. A woman ______daughter was crying tried to calm her. </li></ul><ul><li>11. The car _____the bank robbers escaped in was orange. </li></ul><ul><li>12. The robber _____mask was obviously too big didn't drive. </li></ul><ul><li>13. The man ______drove the car was nervous. </li></ul><ul><li>14. He didn't wait at the traffic lights_____ were red. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 3. Defining relative clauses <ul><li>Defining relative clauses give detailed information defining a general term or expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>A seaman is someone who works on a ship. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 4. Non-defining relative clauses <ul><li>Non-defining relative clauses give additional information on something, but do not define it. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Do not forget!!! </li></ul><ul><li>In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that. </li></ul><ul><li>Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses </li></ul><ul><li>must be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Exercise 2: defining or non-defining relative clauses? <ul><li>Study the situations and then decide whether the following relative clauses are defining or non-defining. </li></ul><ul><li>1. I have three brothers. </li></ul><ul><li>a) My brother who lives in Sidney came to see me last month. </li></ul><ul><li>b)My brother, who lives in Sidney, came to see me last month. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>2. I have one sister. </li></ul><ul><li>a) My sister who is 25 years old spent her holiday in France. </li></ul><ul><li>b) My sister, who is 25 years old, spent her holiday in France. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bob's mum has lost her keys. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Bob's mum who is a musician has lost her car keys. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Bob's mum, who is a musician, has lost her car keys. </li></ul><ul><li>4. My friend Jane moved to Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>a) My friend Jane whose husband is Canadian moved to Canada last week. </li></ul><ul><li>b) My friend Jane, whose husband is Canadian, moved to Canada last week. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Material created by </li></ul><ul><li>Danitza Lazcano Flores </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher of English </li></ul><ul><li>Master in Education </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Counselor </li></ul>