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  • 1. Latin America“My Learning Focus on Argentina” Mark Brandon History 141 Fall2011 Internet Dr. Arguello
  • 2. Argentina It is nothing like I imagined it• Few Indian and African rooted people, it was a unpopulated region of South America.• It is a country of immigrants from Eurasia mostly. It as multi-cultural as the US is now. The immigration flood of the 1800’s just as in the US was what populated the country. Buenos Aries is the New York of Argentina. The British were the biggest investors and large immigrant sources, however, France was its basic identity as architecture and life. Although, the country really assimilates toward British ways and popular formalities of British living.• French Ezcurra family was the surveyor set to chart Argentina. This was the equivalent to Lewis and Clark.• British brought cattle and railroad businesses to Argentina. This was so much like our mid- west and eventual wild west cattle business.• It had a first generation Assyrian (Syrian) son was a President! Proving this was an immigrant country which had incredible potential if it could be a free.• The Northern most region is, unlike the rest which was largely unpopulated until the 1800 world migration, of Indian and some Black origins. This region largely looks like Arizona, including Saguaro cactus!• This area was like Old Spain. Spain required in the 1600 and 1700’s all goods went thru Lima, Peru. The whole route was nothing but a series of tax collection points!
  • 3. Argentina Peron, Peronists, a wife Eva Peron• The immigration brought unions and forged different resentments including socialism, marxism, anarchists, and anti-jewish factions. These also brought crackdowns against immigrants as a whole. Just as in New York.• WWI a world famous dance The Tango is exported from Buenos Aries, its origin is of poverty and bad times.• 1930’s depression era wiped out the fertile grain export business dependent on other countries import demands of beef grain and wool. Britain was a huge importer obviously.• Juan Domingo Peron imposed socialism tied to working class and left out purposefully the great land owners. Pro-union caused the strikes and disrupted the cattle movements and exports. In 1945 Peron is forced to resign and arrested then the people revolted in squares demanding his return to power. The military capitulated and he was elected back into power. This now set up a military which would later purge revolutionaries, create the killing squads, etc. His wife was the symbol of a better robust Argentina, but died at age 33 in 1952 of cancer and her funeral was 2 weeks long and millions of people mourning her historically.• Peron purchased the British railroads and nationalized them as Argentine.• Peron forced partial nationalizing of private lands, taxing them to have to subdivide and sell much of it to pay the taxes imposed. This is how he paid modernize the country.• Peron’s actions against the land owners significantly lowered production and efficiency, which made life for the poor and lower class much worst.• Military attacked Peronists in the capital. Changing the country to a military Junta, creating the Dirty War which ended in the Malvinas Is. (Falklands) War. Peron exiled himself, after refusing to permit possession of arms by his civilian populations.
  • 4. Argentina Had a McClellan after its Dirty War named Carlos Menem• Democracy has emerged in Carlos Menem (a Peronist) the second President, he had to mend the country by pardoning those military guilty of humanity crimes, and trying the forgiveness and reconciliation.• He dismantled many Peron ideals to keep pace, and heal his nation, with overall great support.• Like McClellan, who acted with restraint knowing later reunification with the South after the US Civil War, Menem knew that only forgiveness could overcome the excessive and illegal actions of the Argentine Civil War. The Peronists knew how good it had been, so they were able to come to grips with this difficult.
  • 5. Argentina The Falklands War was about what?• April 1982, the Argentine military junta sent filled the islands with conscripts to throw out the British.• The British responded with landing and air attacks, and 649 conscripts died.• The on scene Argentine military leaders had to halt fighting to save them from slaughter the junta demanded death to the end.• Military Power lost power over the country soon afterward.
  • 6. The Second World Part III Argentina and Chile• Buenos Aires is established Spain’s capitol of its vast holding from Chile to Brazil.• Spain killed most of the native Indians making the colonial Italians and Spanish immigrants minorities and a caste level below.• As a world player in exports, by the 1920’s it rose up as the 7th largest world economy. All this is wiped out when worldwide prices collapse from deflationary depression. Beef and wheat were staple exports and became debased.• When WW2 ramped up, this country was not involved, but benefited largely from immigration of high skilled European workers. An already European populated and oriented society which leveraged this infusion.• Buenos Aries becomes an international city full of Spanish language with a heavy Italian accent.
  • 7. The Second World Part III Argentina• Up until 2001, Argentina was economically pumped up, propped up, and mortgaged until nearly making it a successful modernizing country. The economy turned out to be a bubble in the rising dough.• The government began redistribution of previous made wealth in pension funds. The inflation of prices and the deflation of wages devastating.• This country is not known for corruption, but is known for its inability to regulate and collect its taxes.• The Argentine government blamed the IMF and US largely for economic manipulation resulting in the collapse.• Martial Law was declared to control wealth redistribution and , prevent a revolution.• As part of the inflationary problems and part of the modernization previously, the utilities to homes was in-progress but lost momentum permanently. Only half of the residents are provided service.• In 2007 the President turned over control of the country to his wife.• This loss of national pride by a wide society of origin, now more confidently identifies themselves to their origin, as it is no longer a good thing to be an Argentine.
  • 8. The Second World Part III Argentina and Chile• Foreign investment pays back high interest rates due to the high risk. This is keeping the cash flow into the country largely for its crops, of which China is a large importer.• They have teamed together with Brazil and now export autos.• Current problems include FARC and Hezbollah guerillas trafficking drugs.• Chile is what Argentine pride wanted to become. Oddly, Chile rid Allende by coup in 1973 and place Pinochet as the next 30 year Chilean leader.• Pinochet style has led to a pro-west market and democratic leadership, but its only a probability it is not another Hugo Chavez. Chavez is siding with Iran, Syria, Cuba, and is trying to gain Argentina and other South American countries into his own axis of power with anti-west interests.• Chilean economy was deregulated to enforce growth and fight unemployment while a copper market and free trade agreements have propelled it, leaving Argentina in its wake. Bolivia provides oil for sea port access and the greased economy has no natural predator with free oil.• This positive pressure has a huge negative impact on Argentina unequalled due to free oil.• So as long as Chile keeps up, there is only downward pressure due to the lack of interest in having to fix Argentina to reduce risks on investing.
  • 9. Current News on Argentina’s President Internet sourced Wikipedia• With a devalued exchange rate, policies were taken to re-industrialize, import substitution and increased exports, began consistent fiscal and trade surpluses. Governor Néstor Kirchner, was a left-wing Peronist, elected 2003. Restructured its defaulted debt with a discount (about 66%) on most bonds, paid off IMF debts, rewrote utilities and nationalized some previously private enterprises. He and noteworthy economist Roberto Lavagna enacted income and public works investment programs.• The Argentine Constitution was enacted in 1853. It mandates separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches at the national and provincial level. It is a federal representative democratic republic, the President is both head of state and head of government.• Argentina economic growth has been with high inflation. Néstor Kirchner forfeited the 2007 campaign, in favor of his wife.• Senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner became the first woman to be elected President of Argentina.• She saw controversial plans for higher agricultural export taxes defeated by Vice President Julio Cobos surprise tie-breaking vote against them in 2008, fearing massive agrarian protests in March to July.• The global financial crisis prompting Mrs. Kirchner to step up her husbands policy of state intervention in the economy.• Néstor died October 2010 of a heart attack. His wife took the reigns and then was elected.• Currently Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, with Julio Cobos as Vice President. She is Argentinas first elected female president. The second female president ever to serve, Isabel Martínez de Perón (1974–1976) to charge from her husband.• In 2007 the suitcase of 790.550 $ resulted in a terribly embarrassing diplomatic situation for Cristina Kircher., which was finally resolved and tabled by the US Ambassador to Argentina.
  • 10. Current News on Argentina’s President Internet sourced Wikipedia• 2010 started with controversy, the presidents order that US$6.7 billion escrow account be opened at the Central Bank to retire high-interest bonds of which is tied to inflation. Opposition from Central Bank President and refused. She dismissed him by presidential decree. He refused to abide by the initial decree , and petitioned judicial power to stay. Another decree for his dismissal, citing "mis-conduct“. This new decree was questioned, his dismissal would deny Redrado due process. Congress considered returning to override the decrees through extraordinary session.• This issue of decrees and directing the funds use became a major political point of contention, and discussions of impeachment circled.• This woman shows she is trying extremely hard to get Argentina as successful as it should be• 2011 has been influenced by the general election that took place in October.• The youth organization Cámpora increased its influence within the government, disputing offices and candidacies with the traditional hierarchies of the Justicialist Party and of the CGT. She chose Daniel Filmus for Mayor of Buenos Aires.• June 2011, announced she would run for a second term as president. She chose most candidates for deputy in the Congress, favoring members of the Cámpora.• Cristina Fernández had highly visible disagreements with Brazil, particularly regarding the trade quotas. She also had disputes with the United States, after seizing an American military airplane.• On September 22, President Fernández addressed the United Nations, supporting Palestinian requests to be seated in the General Assembly of United Nations, blamed Iran for the 1994 AMIA bombing, threatened to cancel flights from Chile to the Falkland Islands to advance Argentine claims of sovereignty.• Cristina Fernandez is a ardent advocate of social equality and earnings distribution, and believes that the current global crisis can only be overcome by investing in production, creating jobs and stimulating consumption. She spoke at the 2011 G-20 meeting, and her initiatives were supported by global leaders, and were included in the meetings final resolution.