Mexico- Brief history and Culture


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Brief history of Mexico, a glimpse on their culture by studying about their politics, education, geography, cuisine and other facts.

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Mexico- Brief history and Culture

  1. 1. A country rich in history, tradition and culture..
  2. 2. Mother of Mesoamerican Civilization • The Olmecs grows out of the early villages, beginning in the southern region of what is now Mexico. • Marked by the effective cultivation of crops such as corn (maize), beans, chili peppers and cotton • Pottery, fine art and graphic symbols used to record Olmec history, society and culture; • and the establishment of larger cities such as San Lorenzo (about 1200-900 B.C.) and La Venta (about 900-400 B.C.).
  3. 3. The Mayans: Mesoamerica's most brilliant civilization The Mayan civilization, centered in the Yucatán peninsula, becomes one of the most dominant of the area’s regional groups, reaching its peak around the sixth century A.D., during the Classic period of Mesoamerican history. The Mayas , , and , and left an astonishing amount of ; the ruins can still be seen today.
  4. 4. The Mayans: Mesoamerica's most brilliant civilization
  5. 5. The Mayans: Mesoamerica's most brilliant civilization The Mayan alliance with the Teotihuacán, a commercially advanced society in north-central Mexico, had spread its influence over much of Mesoamerica. were formedThey worshiped various gods related to nature, including the gods of the sun, the moon, rain and corn. The Mayan kings, or " " (holy lords), are claimed to be and followed a
  6. 6. The Mayans: Mesoamerica's most brilliant civilization The less peaceful side of Maya culture includes: the and the importance of
  7. 7. The Toltecs: The beginning of militarism in Mesoamerican society With Teotihuacán and Mayan dominance beginning to wane, a number of upstart states begin to compete for power. The , who migrated from north of Teotihuacán, become the most successful, establishing their empire in the central valley of Mexico. The rise of the Toltecs, who , is said to have marked the beginning of militarism in Mesoamerican society.
  8. 8. The Toltecs: The beginning of militarism in Mesoamerican society • The Toltecs made Tula their capital (also known as Tullan) • Over the next 300 years, the Toltec civilization begins to weaken due to internal conflicts and influx of new invaders from the north. • At 1200 A.D. the Toltecs were conquered by the Chichimecha or the Aztecs.
  9. 9. The Aztecs: Nomads to ‘great empire’ • Aztecs, nomads from the north(The Aztlan, which were the Aztecs is derived) arrived in Mexico’s central valley. • the settlement on central valley, Tenochtitlán, near Texcoco was because of an eagle perched on a cactus, preying on a snake, that they saw on the marshy land. The Aztecs considered this as a sign from their great god Huitzilopochtli.
  10. 10. The Aztecs: Nomads to ‘great empire’ in the city of Azcapotzalco. , with an economy driven markets, which was visited by 50000 people on major market days. (Early forms of currency include cacao beans and lengths of woven cloth) • Their language, in central Mexico by mid-1350s • exquisitely feathered tapestries, headdresses and other attire; finely worked ceramics; gold, silver and copperware; and precious stones, particularly jade and turquoise.
  11. 11. The Aztecs: Nomads to ‘great empire’ • magnificent temples and palaces and imposing stone statues decorating most street corners, plazas and landmarks all embody the civilization’s unfailing devotion to its many gods.
  12. 12. The Aztecs: Nomads to ‘great empire’ • magnificent temples and palaces and imposing stone statues decorating most street corners, plazas and landmarks all embody the civilization’s unfailing devotion to its many gods. plays an important role in Aztecs religious rituals, with the most number of human sacrifice a year compare to other mesoamerican civilization.
  13. 13. The Aztecs: Nomads to ‘great empire’ : the arrival of the Europeans , the to visit Mexican territory, arrives in the Yucatán from Cuba with three ships and about 100 men. • The locals clash with the Spanish explorers, of them and capturing several more. • With these reports of Cordoba, the Governor of Spain (Diego Velasquez) ordered to return to Mexico with larger force.
  14. 14. The Colonial period (1519–1821)
  15. 15. The Colonial period (1519–1821) with 11 ships, 600 soldiers and a large number of supplies, including 16 horses. • the , where they begin learning of the great Aztec civilization. • Cortés , on the Gulf of Mexico directly east of Mexico City and took the place. • Cortés made his way inward into Mexicoto to , enemies of the Aztecs.
  16. 16. The Colonial period (1519–1821) • When Cortez and his men arrived at Tenochtitlán (the Aztecs’ capital city), they were as honorable guests, whose return was prophesied in Aztec legend. Cortez and his allies attacked and conquered the Aztecs. Cortez then colonized the area and named it ) the diseases brought into the society by the Spaniards devastated the indigenous population of Nueva España, killing an estimated The was felt in the region when missionaries began arriving in Concerned about the Catholic Church's ever- growing power, from Nueva España in the late 1700s.
  17. 17. , a parish priest from the town of Dolores, issued a call to rebellion ( ) rebel leader and defected royalist general collaborated to gain Mexico's independence from Spain However, in . A year later, and drew up a new constitution that established a composed of 19 states and four territories. From , served as president, squelching Texas' stand for independence in the battle of the Alamo during his last year in office. He was later and, by 1855, had gone into exile. Following Mexico's in the mid-1800s,
  18. 18. : Federal Republic Branches of the Government • Chief of the state/head of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO • Cabinet: appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate • Bicameral National Congress • highest court(s): Supreme Court of JusticePresident Enrique Peña Nieto
  19. 19. 1. The : a right-wing conservative party founded in 1939 2. The , a center-left party that was founded in 1929 to unite all the factions of the Mexican Revolution and held an almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics since then 3. The : a left-wing party, founded in 1989 as the successor of the coalition of socialists and liberal parties.
  20. 20. • Roman Catholic- 82.7%, • Protestant -1.6%, • Jehovah's Witnesses- 1.4%, • other Evangelical Churches- 5%, • other -1.9%, • none -4.7%, • unspecified -2.7%
  21. 21. The economy of Mexico is the and the , according to the World Bank. GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate - Total : $1.845 trillion (10th) - Per capita : $15,608 (67th) GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate - Total : $1.327 trillion (14th) - Per capita : $11,224 (62nd) As such, Mexico is now firmly established as an .
  22. 22. According to a 2008 UN report the , while the average income in . Daily minimum wages are set annually by law and determined by zone; Mexico ranks: • in electronics industry in the world after China, United States, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. exporter of electronics to the United States produces the most automobiles of any North American nation. The "Big Three" (General Motors, Ford and Chrysler) have been operating in Mexico since the 1930s, while Volkswagen and Nissan built their plants in the 1960s
  23. 23. Mexico has been traditionally among the in the world according to the World Tourism Organization and it is the most visited country in the Americas, after the United States. Mexico has the income from tourism in the world, and the highest in Latin America.
  24. 24. Acapulco Beach Catedral Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico Mayan pyramid ruins in Chichen, Itza, Mexico
  25. 25. Education in Mexico is n (Spanish: Secretaría de Educación Pública). In Mexico, primary school (primaria), comprising grades 1-6; junior high school (secundaria), comprising grades 7-9; and high school (preparatoria), comprising grades 10-12. Depending on definitions, , which are compulsory by law, while Secondary education only includes preparatoria, which is compulsory.
  26. 26. corresponds to primaria, . It starts the basic compulsory education system. corresponds to secundaria, comprising grades 7-9, when the student's age is 12 to 15 years old. At this level, more specialized subjects may be taught such as Physics and Chemistry, and World History. There is also the which provides vocational training, and the which provides distance learning.
  27. 27. or " “ usually corresponds to preparatoria or bachillerato, comprising grades 10-12, when the student's age is 15 to 18 years old. of education, divided into six semesters, with the first semesters having a common curriculum, and the latter ones allowing some degree of specialization, either in physical sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, etc.) or social sciences (commerce, philosophy, law, etc.).
  28. 28. usually follows the US education model with an at least 4-year Bachelor's degree undergraduate level (Licenciatura), and two degrees at the postgraduate level, a 2-year Master's degree (Maestría), and a 3-year Doctoral degree (Doctorado).
  29. 29. is primarily a of indigenous with , elements added after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in the 16th century.
  30. 30. Corn The remains corn in almost all areas of the country. Most corn is dried, treated with lime and ground into a dough. The importance of the chili pepper goes back to the Mesoamerican period. In the 16th century, Bartolomé de las Casas wrote that Beans are usually served as side dish or ingredient to most of their meals. The 1st ever recorded dish made from beans is the which means "well- fried beans“.
  31. 31. much of the food is with the most traditional Mexican cooking . It is considered to be , and traditionally, girls have been considered ready to marry when they can cook. Food preparation, especially for family and social events, is considered to be an in order to maintain social relationships.
  32. 32. Mexican street food is one of the most varied parts of the cuisine. It can include tacos, quesadillas, pambazos, tamales, huaraches, alambres and food not suitable to cook at home
  33. 33. The of Mexico’s street foods, whose origin is based on the pre-Hispanic custom of picking up other foods with tortillas as utensils were not used. the filling varies from rice, to meat (plain or in sauce) to cream, to vegetables and cheese, or simply with plain chili peppers or fresh salsa. a kind of sandwich, served on an oblong 15 cm firm, crusty white sandwich roll. a flour tortilla or a corn tortilla filled with a savory mixture containing cheese, other ingredients, and/or vegetables, (often) then folded in half to form a half-moon shape. is the name of a Mexican white bread. It is the dish (very similar to the torta) made with this bread dipped in a red guajillo pepper sauce and filled with papas con chorizo (potatoes with chorizo).
  34. 34. The land in this area . This led to the dominance of meat, especially beef, in the region, and some of the most popular dishes include and . The north produces the . These include (fresh farmer's cheese), (similar to Monterey Jack), (a mildly sweet, creamy curd of fresh milk), (similar to cottage cheese or riccotta), Chihuahua’s creamy semi-soft and fifty-six varieties of (smoked cheese).
  35. 35. Known for their . The seven are Negro (black), Amarillo (yellow), Coloradito (little red), Mancha Manteles (table cloth stainer), Chichilo (smoky stew), Rojo (red), and Verde (green) in the region. Tortillas are called blandas and part of every meal. Another important aspect to Oaxacan cuisine is , generally consumed as a beverage.
  36. 36. Yucatan food has its own unique style and is very different from what most people would consider Mexican food. It includes influences from the local Mayan culture. There are many regional dishes. Some of them are: is a slow- roasted marinated pork dish and by far the most renowned of Yucatan food. . are soft, cooked tortillas with lettuce, tomato, turkey, and avocado on top. feature fried tortillas filled with black beans and topped with turkey or chicken, lettuce, avocado and pickled onions.
  37. 37. is a "gourmet" dish featuring ground pork inside of a carved Edam cheese ball served with tomato sauce and gravy. Egg tacos covered in pumpkin seed sauce and tomatoes. A fiery hot salsa or relish made with habanero chiles and Seville orange juice
  38. 38. is an sauce that in Mexico. It is traditionally made by mashing ripe avocados with a molcajete (mortar and pestle) with sea salt. Some recipes call for tomato, onion, garlic, lemon juice, chili, yogurt and/or additional seasonings.
  39. 39. is a traditional masa-based hot corn based beverage of Mexican and Central American origin (where it is known as atol). . One variant of coffee is , which is coffee brewed with cinnamon and raw sugar is a distilled beverage made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, north west of Mexico. The is a Mexican cocktail consisting of tequila mixed with Cointreau or similar orange-flavoured liqueur and lime or lemon juice, often served with salt on the glass rim.